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ENDOWED BY THE 
DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 



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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




MUSIC LIBRARY 

Gift of 
WILLIAM S. NEWMAN 



H N 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/fugueprout 



AUGENER'S EDITION, No. 9185. 



MUSIC LIBRARY 
UNC--CHAPEL HILL 

.hi 



FUGUE 



BY 



EBENEZER PROUT, B.A., Lond. 

Hon. Mus.Doc. Trinity Coll., Dublin and Edinburgh, 
and Professor of Music in. the University of Dublin. 



NINTH IMPKESSION 




LONDON: 

AUGENER Ltd. 



Printed in England 

by 

AUGENER Ltd., 

287 Acton Lane, London, W. 4. 



PREFACE. 



There is probably no branch of musical composition in which 
theory is more widely, one might almost say hopelessly, at variance 
with practice than in that which forms the subject of the present 
volume. In Harmony, we are frequently meeting with cases in 
which the rules of the old text-books need much modification ; 
but with regard to Fugue there are few indeed of the old precepts 
which are not continually, not to say systematically violated by 
the greatest masters. The reason for this is no doubt that the 
standard authorities on the subject, Fux and Marpurg, treated it 
from the point of view of the seventeenth century, and that most 
of their successors, such as Cherubini and Albrechtsberger (to name 
two of the most illustrious), have in the main adopted their rules, 
taking little or no account of the reformation, amounting almost 
to a reconstruction, of the fugue at the hands of J. S. Bach. 
Somewhat more liberality of tone will be found in the treatises of 
Andre, Richter, and Lobe ; but not one of these, excepting Lobe, 
has taken Bach's work as the starting point for his investigations. 
Lobe, on the other hand, is too revolutionary ; he even abolishes 
the names "subject" and "answer," using instead the terms 
" first imitation," " second imitation," &c. 

When we find a distinguished theorist like Andre saying thai 
Bach is not a good model because he allows himself too many 
exceptions, and are informed that one of the principal German 
teachers of counterpoint is in the habit of telling his pupils that 
there is not a single correctly written fugue among Bach's " Forty- 
Eight," surely it is high time that an earnest protest were entered 
against a system of teaching which places in a kind of " Index 
Expurgatorius " the works of the greatest fugue writer that the 
world has ever seen. 



iv Preface. 

In writing the present treatise, the author has consulted all the 
standard authorities, but (as may. be inferred from what has just 
been said) has followed none. He has proceeded on the same 
principles which have guided him in all the preceding volumes of 
this series, and has gone to the works of the great composers 
themselves, has carefully analyzed and examined them, and from 
their practice has deduced his rules, without paying the least 
regard to what might be said on the subject by Marpurg or 
Cherubini. He has started with the axiom, which few will be 
bold enough to dispute, that Bach's fugues are the finest in 
existence, and that whatever Bach does systematically, and not 
merely exceptionally, is the correct thing for the student to do. 
He therefore first put into open score and carefully analyzed the 
whole of the forty-eight fugues in the " Wohltemperirtes Clavier." 
He next examined every fugue, vocal and instrumental, to be found 
in the forty volumes of Bach's works published by the Bach Gesell- 
schaft, making notes of all points of importance. But he did not 
confine his attention to Bach. He examined probably at least a 
thousand fugues, including all those by Handel, Mozart, Beet- 
hoven, Mendelssohn, and Schumann, besides a large number by 
other writers of more or less eminence, to find out what had been 
actually done by the greatest masters of our art. The farther his 
researches extended, the deeper became his conviction of the 
necessity of placing the laws of fugal construction on an altogether 
different basis from that hitherto adopted. The result of his 
investigations will be found in the following pages. In the words 
of the Psalmist, he may say, " I believed, therefore have I 
spoken." A great deal to be found in this book will probably 
horrify old-fashioned musical conservatives ; but not a single new 
rule is propounded for which warrant is not given from the works 
of the great composers ; and if he shrank from the logical 
consequences of the examination of these works, the author 
would be untrue to his own convictions. 

The general plan of this volume is to some extent the same 
as that adopted by Mr. James Higgs in his admirable Primer on 
" Fugue," by far the best treatise on the subject in our language. 
It would be dishonest of the author not to acknowledge the 



Preface, v 

assistance he has derived from this little work, which indeed it 
would be impossible for any later writer on the same subject to 
ignore. To Mr. Higgs we owe the clearest exposition yet written 
of the important matter of fugal answer; and, though it will be 
seen that the rules given in this volume differ in several material 
respects from those in the " Primer," the author frankly con- 
fesses that it was Mr. Higgs who first put him on the right 
track. 

It is on this very subject — fugal answer — that the great 
composers depart most widely from the old rules. The new and, 
it is hoped, very simple rules given in Chapters III. and IV. are 
enforced by nearly 150 examples, of which more than sixty are 
by Bach. Other composers are also freely drawn upon; but 
throughout the volume, in all cases of doubt, Bach is treated as 
the final authority. 

In order to assist the student, it has been thought best to 
take the different portions of a fugue separately, that he may 
learn how to construct each part before he proceeds to the 
composition of an entire fugue. The chapters on Counter- 
subject, Exposition, Episode, and Stretto, contain not only 
numerous illustrations from the great masters, but specimens ot 
each, written expressly for the guidance of the student. While 
an endeavour has been made to make them musically interesting, 
it must be remembered that they are merely intended as exercises, 
and have no claim to be judged as compositions. 

The chapter on "The Middle and Final Sections of a Fugue" 
will, it is believed, be found new by English readers. The 
author cannot, however, claim the credit of the first discovery 
that a fugue is written in ternary form. That honour is due 
to Dr. H. Riemann, in his analysis of Bach's " Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier." It is nevertheless so obvious when once pointed out, 
that the author of course availed himself of it, and herewith 
acknowledges his obligations to Dr. Riemann for the idea, 
though he has developed it in a somewhat different way from that 
of the original discoverer. 

Of the later chapters of the volume not much need be said 
here. The concluding chapter, on " Accompanied Fugue," deals 



vi Preface. 

with a branch of the subject not touched on in any book we have 
met with ; but its importance in modern music rendered it 
desirable to say a few words about it. 

As belonging to practical composition rather than to mere 
theoretical study, fugue is a subject which is best taught by 
examples. In the present volume it was impossible to give more 
than a very few complete fugues; but this will be followed as 
soon as possible by a companion volume on " Fugal Analysis," 
the materials of which ;*re already in great part collected, which 
will contain a selection of the finest fugues of the great masters 
in various styles and for ms. These will be all printed in open 
score (like the tw r o fugues by Bach in sections 298, 308), and 
fully annotated. It is hoped that they will be found a most 
valuable aid to the student. 

With the subject of fugue, the strictly theoretical part of this 
series is completed. The remaining volumes will deal with actual 
composition, and the next to follow (after " Fugal Analysis ") will 
be on " Form." 

London, December, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



[N.B. — The numbers refer in every instance to the sections, not to the pages, .] 



CHAPTER I.— Introduction page I 

The requisite preliminary knowledge, I — Definition of the term Fugue, 1 — 
Double, triple, and accompanied fugues, 3 — The difference between 
fugue and canon, 4-6 — General description of a fugue, 7 — The Subject, 8 
— The Answer : real and tonal answers, 9 — The Counter subject, 10 — The 
Exposition, 11 — Episode, 12 — The Counter-exposition, 13 — The middle 
section of the fugue, 14 — The final section : Pedal points, 15 — The 
Srretto, 16 — Close fugue, 17 — Strict and free fugues, 18 — The Ricercare or 
Ricercata, 19 — Fugues by inversion, augmentation, or diminution, 20 — 
The Fughetta, 21 — Fugato, 22 — The essential nature of fugue, 23. 



CHAPTER II.— The Subject page 6 

The essentials of a good subject, 24 — A Subject defined ; fugues with two or 
more subjects, 25 — The necessity of clear tonality, 26 — Implied harmony, 
27 — Subjects that remain in one key : major, 28-30 — Ditto, minor, 31, 
32 — Subjects in the dominant, 33 — Subjects that modulate from tonic to 
dominant, 34 — Ditto, in a minor key modulate to the dominant minor, 35 
— Modulation from dominant to tonic, 36 — Ditto, from tonic to dominant 
and back, 37 — Modulation between tonic and subdominant, 38 — A subject 
in the subdominant, 39 — Incidental modulations, 40, 41 — The cadence of 
a fugue subject, 42-45 — Length, 46 — Compass, 47 — A subject may begin 
on any degree of the scale, 48-49 — The subject must be contrapuntal in 
character, 50 — Adaptability for stretto, 51 — Melody and rhythm, 52 — 
How to determine the limits of a subject, 53 — Directions for work, 54. 



CHAPTER III.— The Answer page 18 

The Answer defined, 55 — Key relation of subject and answer, 56 — Real and 
tonal answers, 57 — When a real answer is possible, 58 — Examples of real 
answers : in a major key, 59-65 — The answer of a minor subject must be 
in the dominant minor, 66 — Examples, 67, 68 — The last note of a 



viii Contents. 



minor subject, 69 — Subject in dominant, answer in tonic, 70 — The 
answer in the subdominant, 71 — Ditto, in a minor key, 72 — Example by 
Bach analyzed, 73-75— Ditto, 76 — Ditto, from the "Art of Fugue," 77 — 
Further examples, 78, 79 — When an answer in the subdominant is 
possible, 80 — Subject in the key of the subdominant, answer in the tonic, 
81 — Modulation between subdominant and tonic, 82 — Treatment of 
intermediate modulations, 83 — Tonal answer: its origin, 84 — The old 
rule, 85 — Its usual application; modification required, 86 — The practice 
of the great masters, 87 — The leap from tonic to dominant answered 
tonally, 88, 89 — The rule applies only to the beginning of an answer, 90 
— Examples of a real answer in such cases, 91 — The dominant approached 
through the third of the scale, 92 — Subjects beginning with the notes of 
the tonic chord : tonal answers, 93 — Ditto, with real answers, 94-99 — 
The principle involved, 100 — Rule for our guidance, 101 — Subjects that 
commence on the dominant, with tonal answers, 102-104 — Ditto, with 
real answers, 105-107 — The reason for real answers here, 108 — Fugues 
with both tonal and real answers, 109 — Tonal answers in the sub- 
dominant, no— Answer in two keys, in — A real answer always possible 
when there is no modulation to the dominant, 112 — Warning to students, 
US- 



CHAPTER IV.— The Answer {continued) page 49 

Subjects that modulate to the dominant, 1 14 — Only two chief keys used in 
exposition, 115 — Rule for modulation, 116 — Point of modulation, 117 — 
Expressed and implied modulation, 118 — Examples, 119, 120 — 
Modulation to be made as early as possible, 121 — Double significance 
of each degree of the scale, 122 — Its importance, 123 — Example 
of subject modulating, by Mozart, 124 — Further examples, 125 — 
Reason for making the tonal change early, 126 — Treatment of third and 
seventh of scale, 127 — Rule for third of scale, 128 — Examples, 129, 130 — 
Treatment of leading note, 131 — Examples, 132, 133 — Subjects that 
modulate from dominant to tonic, 134, 135 — One note answered by two, 
136, 137 — Subjects modulating to dominant and back, 138 — Dissonant 
intervals generally retained in answer, 139 — An important exception, 140 
-143 — Disregard of semitones, 144, 145 — Dominant answered by super- 
tonic, 146-148 — Treatment of chromatic subjects, 149-151 — Answers by 
inversion, 152 — Ditto, by augmentation and diminution, 153 — Change of 
an octave in pitch in course of the answer, 154 — Irregular answers, 155 — 
Summary of general principles, 156 — Bad subjects, 157 — Exercises for the 
student, 158. 



CHAPTER V.— The Countersubject page 72 

Counter subject defined, 159— Must be in double counterpoint with subject, 160 
— Need of contrast, 161 — Examples, 162, 163 — Key of countersubject, 
164 — The inganiiOf 165 — The material of the countersubject, 166 — Often 
forms the basis of episodes, 167 — Sometimes accompanies only a part of 
the subject, 168 — Countersubject in tonal fugues, 169 — Sometimes needs 
modification, 170 — Must make correct two-part counterpoint with the 
answer, 171 — Deferred appearance of countersubject, 172 — A fugue with 
two countersubjects, 173 — Two countersubjects used in succession, 174 — 
A double fugue, 175 — When a countersubject is unnecessary, 176 — 
Directions for working, 177. 



Contents. ix 

CHAPTER VI. — The Exposition and Counter-exposition page 81 

Exposition defined, 178 — Order of entry, 179— Relative distance of voices, 180 
— How this affects choice of voice for answer, 181 — The last entry best in 
an outer part, 182 — Exposition of a two-part fugue, 183 — Order of entry 
in a three-part fugue, 184 — Place of counter subject, 185 — Additional 
entry, when advisable, 186— Example, 187 — Codetta, 188— When is a 
codetta needed before the entry of the answer, 189-191 — Codetta between 
second and third entries, 192, 193 — Example of an exposition in three 
parts, 194-197 — Exercises, 198 — Order of entry in a four-part fugue, 199 
— Alternation of subject and answer : exceptions, 200 — How a four-part 
exposition differs from one in three parts, 201 — When an exposition ends 
in the tonic key, and when in the dominant, 202 — Cases in which all the 
voices do not appear in the exposition, 203 — Example of a four-part 
exposition, 204, 205 — Irregular expositions : an " octave fugue," 206 — 
The Counter-exposition, 207 — Often only partial, 208 — Frequently intro- 
duces the first stretto, 209 — Counter-exposition by inversion, 210 — 
Counter-exposition quite optional, 211 — Directions for work, 212. 



CHAPTER VII.— Episode page 92 

Episode defined, 213 — Its use for modulation, 214— Difference between epi- 
sode and codetta, 215 — The material for episode : sequence, 216 — Use of 
imitation, 217 — Example of episodes developed from subject of fugue, 
218, 219 — Ditto from countersubject, 220, 221 — Ditto from codetta, 222, 
223 — Various devices used in episodes ; example by Handel, 224-226 — 
Episodes formed from entirely new material, 227, 228 — One episode 
sometimes the inversion of another, 229 — General principles ; the im- 
portance of sequence, 230 — Need of variety in each episode, 231 — The 
freedom allowed to the composer, 232 — The number of episodes variable, 
233 — Long and short episodes, 234 — Fugues without episodes, 235 — Ex- 
amples to follow the expositions given in the last chapter, 236 — Episodes 
for the three-part fugue, 237-239 — Ditto, for the four-part fugue, 240-242 
— The chief essentials of good episodes ; directions for work, 243. 



CHAPTER VIII.— Stretto page 109 

Meaning of the word, 244 — The old rule, 245— A stretto not indispensable, 
246— Subjects should be designed for stretto originally, 247 — Examples 
of stretto on a subject not so designed, 248-250— Interval of entry, and 
number of parts ; closest stretti should come last, 251 — Incomplete 
entries, 252 — Varieties of stretto, 253 — A subject and answer specially 
written for stretto, 254 — The various stretti : in two parts, 255-263 — 
Ditto for three voices, 264, 265 — Ditto for four voices, 266, 267 — 
How to invent a subject suitable for stretto, 268 — Stretto in the 
counter-exposition of a fugue, 269 — Canonic stretto, 270 — Regularity 
desirable in the entries of a stretto, 271 — Subject and countersubject 
used together in a stretto ; stretto on a pedal, 272 — Stretto made 
from modified subject, 273 — Stretto by inversion, 274 — Ditto by 
augmentation, 275 — Ditto by diminution and inversion, 276 — The 
stretto maestrale, 277, 278 — Stretto in the exposition of a fugue ; close 
fugue, 279, 280 — In a close fugue the answer will be in the same key as 
the subject, 281 — Examples of stretto by Mozart, 282-284 — Example by 
Mendelssohn, 285— Ditto by Spohr, 286 — Ditto by Brahms, 287— 
Necessity of analysis by the student, 288 — Exercises to be worked, 289. 



x Contents. 

CHAPTER IX. — The Middle and Final Sections of a 

Fugue page 138 

Freedom of treatment of middle section, 290 — Ternary, or Three-Part Form, 
291, 292 — Limits of the first section of a fugue, 293 — Varied length of the 
middle section, 294, 295 — Analysis of the 21st fugue of the " Wohltem- 
perirtes Clavier," 296 — How to distinguish subject and answer in the 
middle section, 297 — Bach's fugue in E minor analyzed, 298 — The first 
section, 299 — First group of middle entries, 300 — Isolated entries, 301 — 
Return to the tonic key in the middle section, 302 — The rest of the 
middle section, 303, 304 — Final section : the coda ; a dominant pedal, 
305 — Additional voices often introduced in a coda, 306 — Summary of 
entries, 307 — Fugue in D major, by Bach, 308 — The subject, 309 — 
Absence of countersubject, 310 — The exposition, 311* — Commencement 
of middle section, 312 — The first stretto, 313 — Third episode and second 
stretto, 314 — A codetta in the middle section, 315 — The third stretto, 
316 — Fourth middle entry, 317 — Final section, 318 — Advisability of 
rests: method of re-entry of voices, 319, 320 — The employment of 
cadences, 321 — Order of modulation ; Cherubim's rules, 322 — These 
rules hardly ever observed by Bach, 323 — Modulations beyond the 
nearly-related keys, 324 — General rules for the treatment of middle 
entries, 325 — Exceptions, 326 — All voices need not take part in a middle 
entry, 327 — Number of middle entries variable, 328 — Treatment of the 
pedal point, 329 — Need of continuity, 330 — The last note before a rest, 
331 — Individuality of the voices necessary, 332 — The composition of a 
complete fugue, 333 — Should have a definite plan, 334 — Specimen fugue 
for two voices, 335 — Analysis of ditto, 336-339— A fugue for three 
voices, 340 — The same analyzed, 341, 342 — A four-part fugue, 343 — 
Analysis of ditto, 344-347 — Need of practice, 348. 



CHAPTER X. — Fughetta and Fugato page Ijl 

Definition of Fughetta, 350 — Its usual form, 351 — Examples by Bach, 
352-354 — A five-part fughetta by Handel, 355 — Example by Mozart, 
356 — Ditto by Beethoven, 357 — The nature of Fugato, 358 — Example by 
Bach, 359 — Ditto from the "Creation," 360 — Ditto by Beethoven, 361 — 
Ditto by Mendelssohn, 362 — Ditto by Mackenzie, 363. 



CHAPTER XL— The Fugue on more than one Subject page 182 

Double Fugue, 365 — The two kinds of double fugue, 366 — How distinguished 
from fugues with a countersubject, 367 — The two subjects must be 
written in double counterpoint, 368 — Number of parts requisite, 369 — The 
exposition of the first kind of double fugue ; first method, 370-374 — The 
second method, 375-377 — Need for clearness, 378 — The form of this 
kind of double fugue, 379 — The middle entries, 380 — The stretti, 381 — 
Isolated entries, 382 — The second kind of double fugue, 384 — How it 
differs from the other kind, 385 — The two expositions, 386-389 — The 
combination of the two subjects, 390 — Analysis of Organ Fugue in C 
minor, by Bach, 391-394 — Limits ot variation in this form, 395 — General 
form of this kind of fugue, 396 — Small amount of modulation, 397 — 
Triple Fugue, 398 — An unusual form, 399 — Fugue from the " Art of 
Fugue" analyzed, 400-403 — The ordinary form ; the exposition, 404 — 
Example by Albrechtsberger, 405 — Triple fugue by Mozart analyzed, 
406-409 — Freedom of triple fugues, 410 — Quadruple Fugue, 411 — A 
spurious variety, 412 — An exposition of a quadruple fugue by Cherubini, 
413 — Its subsequent treatment, 414. 



Contents. xi 

CHAPTER XII.— The Fugue on a Choral page 216 

The two methods of writing a fugue on a choral, 415 — The subjects taken from 
the choral itself, 416 — Example by Buxtehude analyzed, 417-421 — Ex- 
ample by Bach, 422, 423— The form of such fugues, 424— The entries of 
the canto fermo, 425 — Modern examples, 426 — The second kind of fugue 
on a choral, 427 — Example from Bach's Motetts analyzed, 428 — Modula- 
tions, 429— The choral introduced during the episodes, 430 — Example by 
Mendelssohn, 431 — Why the freer style was adopted, 432 — The first line 
of a choral taken as the fugue subject ; example, 433 — The freedom 
allowed in this kind of work, 434. 



CHAPTER XIII.— Accompanied Fugues page 229 

Definition, 435 — Accompanied exposition, 436, 437 — Filling up thin harmony, 
438 — Variations of voice parts, 439, 440 — Independent counterpoints, 
441-444 — General principles, 445-448— Importance of good models, 449 
— Our rules founded on the practice of the great masters, 450. 



Fugue. 



chapter I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

i It is absolutely necessary that any one who begins to study 
fugue should have a thorough knowledge not only of Harmony 
and Counterpoint, but of Double Counterpoint and Canon. 
Without such knowledge any attempt to master fugal composition 
is a mere waste of time. A previous acquaintance on the part of 
the pupil will therefore be presupposed throughout this work, 
either with the preceding volumes of the present series, or with 
other books treating of the same subjects. 

2. A Fugue is a composition founded upon one subject, 
announced at first in one part alone, and subsequently imitated 
by all the other parts in turn, according to certain general 
principles to be hereafter explained. The name is derived from 
the Latin word fuga, a flight, from the idea that one part starts 
on its course alone, and that those which enter later are pursuing 
it. 

3. Though the definition of Fugue just given may be 
accepted as generally correct, it should be mentioned here, to 
prevent misapprehension, that fugues may be written on more 
than one subject. If there are two subjects, the fugue is said to 
be a double fugue ; if there are three, it is a triple fugue, and so on. 
In such cases the composition will not begin with one part alone ; 
the subjects will appear together, although in all probability they 
will not all commence exactly at the same time. It must also be 
said that we often meet, especially in modern music, with 
vocal fugues having an independent instrumental accompaniment. 
In such cases what has been said as to the entry of the subject 
with one part alone does not apply ; a fugue of this kind has 
some analogy to an accompanied canon. 

4. From the description just given of fugue, it would seem at 
first sight to have a considerable resemblance to Canon. The 
latter, indeed, was formerly called fuga canonica, and it will 
greatly assist the beginner to understand the real nature of a 
fugue if we point out the chief differences between it and the 
canons which, it may be assumed, he has already studied. One 
most important difference is that, whereas in a canon the leading 
voice is imitated throughout by all the parts that follow, this 



I Fugue. ichap. i 

is never the case in a fugue. The opening theme, known as the 
" subject," is always imitated ; frequently also one or more of the 
accompanying counterpoints to . the various imitations of the 
subject are themselves imitated, as will be seen later in this 
chapter ; but continuous imitation of one part by another 
throughout the whole piece is scarcely ever met with in a fugue.* 
This is one of the most important distinctions between the 
two forms. 

5. Another respect in which fugue differs from canon is that 
in the latter the imitation by the second voice must always 
be exact as to the name of the interval, though in many cases (as 
for instance in a canon in the ninth) the quality of the interval 
is changed {Double Counterpoiiit and Canon, §§ 339, 340 1). 
In a very large number of fugues, on the other hand, the first 
imitation is not an exact copy of the subject, but requires more 
or less important modification, as will be explained later. 

6. A third distinction between the forms which we are now 
comparing is that, while in a canon the first imitation may be at 
any interval, it must in a fugue be always at the distance of a fourth 
cr fifth above or below the subject. This, it must be added, 
refers only to the commencement of a fugue ; in its later develop- 
ments the entries may be at other intervals. 

7. Before proceeding to treat separately of the various parts 
of a fugue, it will be advisable to give a general description of its 
form, and an explanation of the names applied to the different 
parts. Fugues differ so much in their structural details that it is 
impossible to give more than a general outline here ; the 
numerous variations will be noticed when in later chapters we 
treat of the various parts one by one. 

8. The Subject of a Fugue is the theme announced in the 
first instance by any one part or voice without harmony (except 
in the cases mentioned in § 3), on which the whole composition is 
founded. By this it is not meant that the subject is to be heard 
continuously throughout the fugue ; this would probably cause 
great monotony, although instances are to be met with {e.g., in 
the first fugue of Bach's ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier ') in which 
the subject is rarely absent. What is intended is that the subject 
is to make its appearance, at more or less frequent intervals, 
throughout the whole of the fugue. 

9. The Answer is the transposition of the subject into the 
key of the perfect fourth or fifth above or below the key of 
the subject. Iu an enormously large majority of cases the keys 
for the subject and answer will be the tonic and dominant ; 
occasionally we find the answer in the subdominant instead 

* As an exceptional instance of a fugue in which two parts are in canon 
throughout should be mentioned the ' Fuga canonica in Epidiapente' (i.e., in the 
fifth above) in Bach's ' Musikalisches Opfer.' 

f The references to " Harmony," " Counterpoint," and " Double Counterpoint 
and Canon " throughout this work refer to the preceding volumes of this series. 



Chap. /.) Introduction. J 

of the dominant. (See § 71.) The answer will in the first 
instance be given by whatever voice has the second entry, 
and the choice of this voice, as will be seen later, will largely 
depend on what voice first announces the subject. The 
answer is frequently an exact transposition of the subject; 
in this case it . is called a real answer ; and a fugue which 
contains a real answer is said to be a " real fugue." At 
other times the answer is a modified transposition of the subject, 
alterations being necessitated by the form of the subject itself. 
Such an answer is called a tonal answer ; and a fugue in which 
there is a tonal answer is called a "tonal fugue." The rules 
which enable us to decide whether an answer should be real 
or tonal will be fully discussed in Chapters III., IV. 

10. The first voice, which announced the subject, should 
never be silent while the second voice is giving the answer. It 
always accompanies with a counterpoint, which may or may not 
be intended for subsequent use. If it be, it must be written 
in double counterpoint, so as to be able to accompany the 
subject or answer either above or below. A counterpoint which 
accompanies subject or answer systematically (though not of 
necessity invariably) is called a Countersubject. We sometimes 
meet with fugues which have more than one countersubject. 

11. A fugue may be in any number of parts, but, whatever 
the number, they should all (with very rare exceptions) enter in 
turn at the commencement of the fugue with either the subject or 
the answer. That portion of the fugue which extends as far 
as the conclusion of the subject or answer (as the case may be) 
by the voice that last enters is called the Exposition of the 
Fugue 

12. The exposition is usually followed by the first Episode. 
An episode is that part of the fugue in which for a while neither 
subject nor answer is heard. It is usually founded upon some 
material taken either from the subject or from one of the 
accompanying counterpoints, in order to give unity to the 
composition as a whole. The episode is also employed for 
the purposes of modulation, as will be seen when we come 
to treat of it later. 

13. The close of the first episode is sometimes, though not 
always, followed by what is called a Counter-Exposition. This 
is a second exposition in the same two keys as the first, but with 
this difference, that the voices which before had the subject now 
usually have the answer, and vice versa. Sometimes the counter- 
exposition precedes the first episode, and follows the exposition 
immediately. Very frequently also it is only partial; that is to 
say, only some of the voices, and not all, take part in it. 

14. The counter-exposition, if there be one, will generally be 
followed by a second episode, different from the first one. To 
this second episode (or to the first, if there be no counter- 
exposition) succeeds the Middle Section of the fugue. Here a 



4 Fugue. [Chap. 1 

much greater amount of freedom is allowed to the composer ; in 
fact there are hardly two fugues the middle sections of which are 
identical in their construction.- There are no restrictions in this 
section as to order, interval, or key of entry, though in the best 
models we mostly find that here the two principal keys (tonic and 
dominant) of the fugue, which have been almost exclusively 
employed during the exposition, are in general avoided, or only 
incidentally touched on. The entries of the subject in other than 
the chief keys of the movement are here also mostly divided 
by episodes 

15. The Final Section of a fugue is that in which a return 
is made to the original key. Here the subject appears once 
at least ; very frequently the answer is also repeated. It is not 
uncommon, especially in vocal fugues, to find a Pedal point 
(Harmony, Chapter XX.) introduced toward the close of this 
final section. Sometimes there will be two pedal points ; in this 
case a dominant pedal will come first, and a tonic pedal at the 
conclusion of the piece. Pedal points are also occasionally, 
though much more rarely, to be met with in the middle section 
of a fugue. A good example will be seen in the fugue in 
F major, No. 1 1 of the second book of Bach's ' Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier.' 

1 6. An important feature of many, though by no means of all, 
fugues, is what is known as a Stretto. This is an Italian word 
meaning " close," and is applied to that part of a fugue in which 
the entries of the subject and answer succeed one another more 
closely, that is, at a shorter distance of time, than in the first 
exposition. For instance, if the subject be four bars in length, 
the answer will, in all probability, enter at the fifth bar. If, now, 
in the subsequent developments of the fugue the subject is 
followed by the answer (or by the subject itself) in another voice 
at the fourth, third, or second bar instead of the fifth, so that the 
first entry, so to speak, overlaps the second, we have a stretto. A 
stretto may be merely for two voices, or all the voices of the 
fugue may take part in it in turn. Very frequently we find more 
than one stretto in the same fugue. In that case the interest of 
the music is not only maintained, but heightened by making each 
successive stretto closer than the preceding. 

17. We sometimes find fugues in which a stretto is seen in 
the first exposition, that is to say, in which the answer enters 
before the completion of the subject, not infrequently immediately 
after its commencement. A fugue of this kind is called a Close 
Fugue. 

18. The old theorists used to draw a distinction between 
strict and free fugues. A Strict Fugue was one which either 
contained no episodes at all, or in which the material of the 
episodes was entirely drawn from the subject or countersubject. 
Most of the fugues in Bach's * Wohltemperirtes Clavier ' belong 



chap i.j Introduction* 5 

to this class. If the episodes were chiefly constructed on matter 
unconnected with the subject or countersubject, the fugue was 
said to be a Free Fugue. The fugue in Handel's overture to 
1 Samson ' is an excellent example of a free fugue. 

19. A strict fugue in which the various scientific devices, such 
as canonic imitation, augmentation, diminution, &c, were largely 
employed, was formerly known as a Ricercare, or Ricercata, 
that is a fugue with research. Two elaborate fugues, one for 
three and the other for six voices, in Bach's { Musikalisches Opfer ' 
are entitled "Ricercare." The name was also sometimes given 
to fugues without episodes. 

20. We occasionally find fugues in which the answer, instead 
of being, as usual, a transposition of the subject (§ 9), is given by 
inversion, or by augmentation or diminution. We shall see 
examples of these as we proceed. Such fugues are called fugues 
by inversion, augmentation or diminution, as the case may be. 

21. A fugue of only small dimensions, and not developed at 
any great length, is called a Fughetta — an Italian diminutive, 
meaning a little fugue. Many specimens of this kind are to be 
found in Bach's organ arrangements of chorals. A good example 
will also be seen in Beethoven's ' Thirty-three Variations on a 
waltz by Diabelli,' op. 120, at the twenty-fourth variation. 

22. We very frequently meet with passages written in the 
fugal style, that is, in which a subject is announced in one part 
and imitated by the others, but in which the imitation is not at 
the regular intervals of reply of subject and answer. Such 
passages are called Fugato passages. A whole movement is 
sometimes written in this way; but more often fugato passages 
are introduced incidentally. The chorus " Their sound is gone 
out " in the ' Messiah ' is an example of fugato. 

23. It must be clearly understood by the student that what 
has been said in this chapter is to be regarded only as a very 
general description. There is, probably, hardly any other form 
of composition in which there is so much room for variation of 
detail as the fugue. Beyond the fact that all fugues contain an 
exposition, a middle section, and a final section, there is little or 
nothing that they necessarily have in common. The one point 
to realize is, that a fugue should be, so to speak, an organic 
growth, the materials of which are to be developed mainly from 
the subject and its accompanying counterpoints. How this is to 
be effected we shall endeavour *to show in the following chapters, 
in which we shall deal in succession with the various portions of 
a fugue. 



Fugue. ichap. n. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE SUBJECT. 

24. One of the most important points to be considered in the 
composition of a fugue is the choice of a good subject. It would 
be possible to write a fugue of some kind — or, to speak more 
correctly, a piece in fugal form, on almost any subject that might 
be selected ; but it is by no means every melody that is adapted 
for fugal treatment ; and it is no more possible to make a really 
good fugue on a bad subject than it would be to make a 
really good coat out of rotten cloth. In this chapter we shall 
endeavour to show what are the essentials of a good subject. 

25. A Subject has been already denned (§ 8) as " the theme 
announced in the first instance by any one part or voice without 
harmony, on which the whole composition is founded." In the 
overwhelmingly large majority of cases this definition is correct : it 
is only in fugues with more than one subject, or in fugues with 
accompaniment, that the subject on its first announcement has 
any harmony. Many theorists speak of the countersubject (§ 10) 
as a second subject, and call a fugue with a regular counter- 
subject " a fugue with two subjects," or " a double fugue." In 
this volume we shall restrict the meaning of the word " subject " 
to that theme which is announced at the very commencement of 
the fugue, and speak of a " second " or " third " subject only 
when such accompanies the first subject before it has been 
answered in another voice. It is possible also for a second 
subject to appear later in the fugue, provided it has a separate 
"exposition" (§ 11) of its own, and is subsequently heard 
in combination with the first subject. 

26. The first point to be considered in writing a fugue subject 
is clear tonality. This is a matter of the utmost importance, 
because if we are in any doubt as to our key, it may be very 
difficult, if not impossible, to give a correct answer, as will be 
seen in our next chapter. It is_ quite true that in many of 
the older fugues the tonality sounds vague and undecided ; but 
this is because they were written in the old church modes, about 
which, except as a matter of antiquarian curiosity, the student 
need not trouble himself. It is not necessary that a subject 
remain throughout in the same key ; but if a modulation is made 
it should be unmistakable, and there should in general be 
no difficulty in determining where it takes place. 

27. It will greatly facilitate the student's labours in this 
respect if he accustoms himself, when inventing a subject, to think 



Chap. 11. 



The Subject. 



of the implied accompanying harmony. Every musical phrase 
that has any meaning at all must be capable of being harmonized, 
probably in several different ways ; and if from the first we think 
what harmonic progressions go best with the subject we have 
chosen, there will be little fear of our losing the distinct feeling of 
a key. 

28. To illustrate our meaning we will give a few examples of 
simple subjects which remain in one key throughout — 

Handel. ' Messiah. 



(*) 111 1 

egg j JTJj ! r r c LL^ 



Handel. 'Judas Maccabaeus. 



m 



If the student will examine these subjects, he will see that in 
both of them there can be no possible doubt about the key. 
Both begin with the notes of the tonic chord (the semiquaver C 
in (p) is only an ornamentation of the D) ; and both end with 
the descent from supertonic to tonic. The following example 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 




is somewhat different. Here the progression is by step from 
tonic to dominant, and if we look at the first bar alone, the 
tonality is a little less decided than in the examples from Handel 
But the prominence given to the dominant in the second bar 
fixes the key clearly, and the impression is strengthened by 
the subject ending on the mediant (E). 

29. Our next example 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 31. 



g rpr f 



§H 



is perfectly clear. The key is fixed at once by the leap from 
tonic to dominant at the commencement ; for although the first 
note, E, might be the dominant of Aflat, it would be most 
unlikely to leap to the supertonic of that key; and if it were the 
subdominant in the key of B flat, it would be quite unprecedented 
for it to leap to the tonic. Besides this, we must always mentally 
supply the most natural harmonies to a subject. In this case, the 
first chord must of course be E flat ; the second will be either 
another position of E flat, or the chord of B flat — in either case 
strongly suggesting the key of Eflat; and the suggestion is 
changed into a certainty by the A flat immediately following. In 
general, if a fugue subject begins with an upward leap of a perfect 
fifth, or a downward one of a perfect fourth, the first note will be 
the tonic of the key, and the second the dominant ; if, on the 



8 



Fugue. 



[Chap, n 



other hand, it begins with an upward leap of a fourth, or a 
downward of a fifth, the first note will be the dominant and the 
second the tonic. There are occasional exceptions to this rule, 
as in the following example — 

Mozart. Mass in C, No. 12. 



Such exceptions are, however, extremely rare, and in these cases, 
the close of the subject, or the beginning of the answer, will always 
determine the key. In our example, if the subject began in 
A minor, it could not end with an implied modulation (§ 118) 
to G. This fugue, also, being on three subjects, the key is 
denned as C by the other subjects, which accompany the theme 
here quoted (see § 406). 

30. Similar reasoning will apply to our next example — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue ax. 




If we try to think of the simplest and most natural harmonies to 
accompany this melody, we shall obtain something like this — 



mm 



S^FSt 



m 



^ 



8 7 



8 7 



Here the A natural and E flat in the second bar prove the key to be 
B flat ; for there is no other major key in which both these notes are 
found, unless one be a chromatic note ; and there is no suggestion 
of chromatic harmony in the subject, which is diatonic throughout. 
Our last example in a major key 



Beethoven. Mass in C 



requires little explanation. Though the leading note is not used, 
the feeling of the whole subject is decidedly that of the key of C, 
and not F. Compare the end of the subject with that of 
example (c) of § 28. 

31. In a minor key we find the tonality equally clear, as will 
be seen from the following examples — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 2. 



Chap. II.] 



The Subject. 



J. S Bach. Organ Fugue in C minor. 




At (a) the juxtaposition of the minor sixth and major seventh of 
the scale fixes the key at once. The same result is obtained at 
(I?) by following the arpeggio of the dominant seventh by that of 
the tonic chord (Harmony, § 241). At (c) we are in doubt till 
the third bar, though we feel that the key is C, whether the mode 
will be major or minor ; the A flat settles the question in favour 
of the latter. 



32. In our next example 



Handel. ' Muzio Scevola. 



the key is fixed by the arpeggio of the tonic chord (compare 
example (b), § 30). 
(*) 

^te r r r ggg 



Mozart. Requiem. 

i» t -r- m- 



Here the interval of the diminished fifth followed by B flat shows 
the key to be G minor. In our last example 

Mendelssohn. 'Elijah. 




gr-^ 



s r\ 



rJJ m q-^ 



the first three quavers of the second bar fix the key 

33. Sometimes the subject, instead of being in the key of the 
tonic, is in that of the dominant throughout, as in the following 
instances — 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Ein ungefarbt Gemtithe." 




yi b(c) 




Handel. ' Samson. 

I 1 ^ =f— 1 f TT1 


-1+41 — ^ — 1 — 




lA-j f 1 ^ • j ^J 



That we have here the key of the dominant is shown, not only by 
the signature of the movement, but also (as will be seen in the 
next chapter) by the interval at which the answer replies. 



Fugue. 



[Chap. II 



34. A fugue subject often ends in a different key from that in 
which it begins. The case most frequently met with is that 
in which it begins in the tonic and ends in the dominant — ■ 



(a) Key : C. 


J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Ich hatte viel Bekiimmerniss." 
Key : G. 


@-'-.(* J " 1 J|*j*"' , |*- 








1 y -\ — 



Though the leading note of the new key is not introduced here, 
the construction of the melody in the last two bars clearly 
indicates the key of G. This is further proved by the answer 
Bach gives to the subject. In the following examples 

T. S. Bach. Cantata, "Singet dem Herrn.' 
{b) Key : D. Key : A. 



fTTg CT*^ 



, U! (c) Key: F. 


-/m 1 g f* ' 1*- 


Kev • C Handel. ' Hercules. 




1 1 » l U 


' w a ££&— ' 




_j — . 



(rf) Key: El 



Schumann. Mass, Op. 147. 
Kev:Bb. 



m 



^ 



p 



^=& 



the leading note of the dominant key appears in the subject. 

35. If the subject be in a minor key, it is very important to 
remember that the modulation must be to the dominant minor, 
and not to the dominant major key. 

J. S. Bach. ' Matthaus Passion.' 
{a) Key : A. minor. .^. — Key : E_mirior. 



Here, though the dominant chord of A minor is, of course, 
E major, the modulation is not made into that key, but into 
E minor. Our next example shows a chromatic note in a 
subject — 

Schumann. Fugue, Op. 72, No. 1. 
(b) Key : D minor. ^_^ |^ Key : A minor. 




In the second bar of this subject the G sharp, though the leading 
note of A minor, does not cause a modulation into that key, 
because it is preceded by B flat, and immediately afterwards 
contradicted by G natural. The modulation does not take place 
till the latter half of the fourth bar. Our last example 

Rubinstein. 'Paradise Lost.' 
Key : C minor. 



shows a chromatic note (F sharp) as an auxiliary note, and 
is therefore similar to the preceding. 



Chap. TT.| 



The Subject. 



i i 



36. Less commonly we meet with subjects that begin in the 
key of the dominant and end in that of the tonic. Two 
examples will suffice — 

ir... .a J- S. Bach. Mass in B minor. 

Key - A - Key:D. 

.*_, ^- _-»- (»- 




„ (*) Key : C. 

fe -H-J4 


~Ch 




Key: F. 


(■ ^ r f 


Handel. * Rinaldo.' 


gr ( ' "i * ^ 






u> L — i =....Lj!- 


1 — H ' r 


C£Ti > rl Lb ffL 



In the second of these subjects, the close looks at first as if 
it were in the key of C. That it is not so, is proved by the 
auxiliary note in the last bar being B flat, and not B natural. 

37. It is also possible, though somewhat rare, for a subject to 
begin in the tonic, modulate to the dominant and return to the 
tonic, as in the following example- 



Key : E minor. 



J. S. Bach. Cantata, "Sehet, welch' eine Liebe. 
Key: B minor. 

± 



X=£z 



Key : E minor. 



£nrr_rr j=eirr r t 0^ 



38. Occasionally, instead of tonic and dominant, the two keys 
employed for the subject are tonic and subdominant. The 
following passages 

Handel. ' Alexander's Feast.' 
Key : G rnjnor. Key : D minor. 



(8) Key:G. 




&m 



Key : D. 



J. S. Bach. Mass in B minor. 



SW 



l^g 



» 



begin in the subdominant and end in the tonic. In our next 
examples 

Key : G. J - ^- Bach. Fugue in E minor. 



(c) Key : E minor. 



Key : A minor. 



((f) Key : A minor. 

5* 



Mendelssohn. 3rd Organ Sonata. 
Key : E minor. Key : D minor. 




the subject begins in the tonic and ends in the subdominant. In 
example (d) we also find an intermediate modulation to the 
dominant ; and in (c) to the relative major. 



Fugue. 



[Chap. II. 



39. Quite exceptionally an entire subject is to be found in the 
Key of the subdominant — 



Handel. Jephtha. 



The key of the piece is D minor; but this subject is decidedly in 
G minor, the B natural being, as its subsequent treatment shows, 
the chromatic major third of the minor key. 

40. In addition to the modulations already spoken of, we 
frequently meet with incidental modulations in the course of 
a subject which ends, as it began, in the key of the tonic. Of 
these the most usual are to the subdominant key for a major 
subject, and to the relative major for a minor subject — 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Wer Dank opfert." 




i% g ga 17^ 



m 



Mendelssohn. ' St. Paul. 



$*= 



*o=t 



In all these examples will be seen a short modulation to the key 
of the subdominant. 

41. The same modulation is sometimes found with a subject 
in a minor key — 

Handel. ' Messiah. 



More frequently, however, the incidental modulation for a minor 
key is, as said above, into the key of the relative major — 



Bach. Organ Fugue in G minor. 




a M 



Handel. Anthem, " In the Lord put I my trust.' 



Chap. Il.l 



The Subject. 



»3 



42. A good fugue subject should always (or at least with 
extremely rare exceptions) contain a complete musical ph?-ase. By 
the word " phrase " is here meant a passage containing some 
distinct idea, and terminating with a cadence of some kind 
(Counterpoint, Chapter XV.). It is not intended by this that 
there is actually to be a cadence introduced at the end of the 
subject, but only that the final notes of the subject shall be capable 
of being harmonized as a cadence — not necessarily a full cadence, 
though in a large majority of instances this is the case. If the 
student will examine all the subjects already quoted in this 
chapter, he will find this condition invariably fulfilled. In almost 
every instance the subject ends with either the root or third 
of tonic or dominant. In the rare cases where the subject ends 
in the subdominant (see § 38, (c), (d), the close will be made 
on the root or third of the tonic of that key. 

43. In order to obtain a proper cadential effect, it is necessary 
in common lime that the subject should end on an accented 
note — either at the first or third beat of the bar (see for instance 
the examples in § 28). In this case, if the cadence is felt as 
occurring on the strong beat in the bar, a continuation of the 
harmony is sometimes added, as in § 31 (c). 

44. The only exception to this rule in common time is, that 
the subject may end on an unaccented note, provided that the 
preceding accented note has the character of a suspension or an 
appoggiatura — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 37. 




Here the end of the third bar suggests the chord of the dominant 
seventh ; it is resolved at the beginning of the fourth bar, where 
the B is clearly an appoggiatura. See also examples § 32 (b) 
and § 35 (b). 

45. In triple time this rule does not apply, because here it is 
possible for the final chord of the cadence to come on the second 
beat (Counterpoint, § 484). As an example of this see § 34 (d). 

46. It is impossible to give any definite rules as to the length 
of a fugue subject. In the works of the great masters we 
sometimes find them quite short, consisting in fact of only a few 
notes — 

J. S. Bach. 
Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 5. 




I 



J. S. Bach. 
Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 22. 



S$3f 



r-gf 



Mozart. Quartett in G, No. 14. 



I 



(c) 



ffzz: 



i4 Fugue [Chap. :i. 

At othei times they are of very considerable extent — 

/ 7\ J. S. Bach. Toccata in C minor. 




, L n (■/) 


. ^ 


— » . — 


Beethoven. Quartett in C, Op. 59, No. 3. 








llll 












In long subjects such as these, we very often find sequential 
passages introduced. As a general rule, the slower the time, the 
fewer should be the bars in a fugue subject. It is important that 
the hearer should readily recognize the subject when it reappears, 
and this is much more easily done if it be concise than if it be 
long and straggling. Many of the finest fugues existing are those 
written on short subjects. It should be added that the length of 
the subject in vocal fugues will partly depend on the words, as 
the cadence should always come where the sense of the text 
allows it. Think, for example, how absurd it would be if the 
fugue subject at § 28 (a) ended with the words, " and he shall 
reign for ever and " — ! 

47. Another important matter to be considered is the compass 
of the subject. In vocal fugues this should rarely exceed an 
octave, because if it does, it will be very likely when it appears in 
other keys to go beyond the comfortable range of the voices. 
Exceptions are occasionally to be met with, as, for instance, in 
our example (a) of § 40, which has the compass of a tenth \ but 
Lhese are rare. In instrumental fugues a larger compass is 
possible ; but even then it is seldom expedient, because of the 
probability of its causing much crossing of the parts, and so 
impairing the clearness of the fugue. Many of the best fugue 
subjects lie within a small compass. In two of the finest fugues 
of Bach's " Forty-Eight " (Nos. 4 and 33) the compass of the 
subject does not exceed a fourth. In the examples given above 
at § 32 (b) and § 34 (b) the compass is only a fifth ; while at 
§ 28 (c\ § 30 (b) t and § 34 (c) it is only a sixth. 



Chap. 11.] 



The Subject. 



»S 



48. Though there are limitations (§ 42) as to the note of the 
scale on which a fugue subject should end, there are none as to 
that on which it should begin. In an enormous majority of 
cases, the subject begins on either the tonic or dominant ; but 
numerous examples are to be met with of the employment of the 
other degrees of the scale for the initial note. We give a few 
instances of each — 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Der Himinel lacht." 

-* — ■ m * 




Mendelssohn. " Surrexit pastor," Op. 39, No. 3. 

4- 




Subjects beginning on the supertonic are rather rare. Another 
example will be seen in Bach's fugue in B flat, No. 45 of the 
' Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' Subjects beginning on the mediant 
are also not very often met with — 

,<0 



Beethoven. Mass in D. 



m 



u 



W) 



Cherubini. 4th Mass. 



m 



*=x 



J m r r r i g 



49. The following subjects begin on the subdominant- 



Handel. Dettingen Anthem. 



1 \ ^ ^ riANUKL. uemngen Anmem. 

ffi*« r 1 m m 1 r J J ■ * 1 r 



Schumann. Fugue, Op. 72, No. 3. 



j^jiJj-'^P^ 1 



Id the two next examples the subject begins on the submediant- 



Bach. Organ Fugue in E flat (" St. Ann's "). 

T" m T' — m m m m- 




A commencement on the leading note is very rare. We have 
given one instance in § 44 ; we add another — 



Hummel. 1st Mass. 




This subject is further interesting from its containing an incidental 
modulation to the key of the relative minor, which »s somewhat 
unusual for a subject in a major key. 



it 



Fugue. 



[Chap. II 



50. There are still two points of importance to be considered 
in the selection of a fugue subject. First, it must be contrapuntal 
in character, or at least adapted for contrapuntal treatment. 
There are many beautiful melodies which would be utterly 
unsuitable for fugue ; it is difficult to imagine fugues written, for 
example, on such subjects as the following — 



*t 



(«) 



Beethoven. Symphony in D. 



>=a=? 



Beethoven. Sonata, Op. 2, No. 1. 




It is impossible to give any precise rules as to what constitutes a 
contrapuntal subject ; but the student who has properly studied 
counterpoint will feel it instinctively. One probable reason why 
the melodies just given are unsuitable is that they are too much 
cut up by "middle cadences" (Counterpoint, §§ 480, 505). 
Sometimes a cadence is met with in the middle of a subject, as in 
example (c) of § 41 ; but in general the subject should flow 
continuously, as is the case in the large majority of examples 
already quoted. 

51. Though not indispensable, it is often advisable that the 
subject itself should be adapted for stretto ; that is, for imitation 
at less than the original distance (§ 16). This question will be 
fully dealt with later (Chapter VI II.). 

52. The last point of importance to be mentioned is the 
necessity of distinct character in a fugue subject. A mere 
meaningless collection of notes, resembling a clumsy counter- 
point exercise, will never make a good fugue. The chief 
essentials in this respect are a clearly defined melody, and a well- 
marked rhythm. Such examples as those we have given in 
§ 28 (a) (b\ § 34 (a), § 46 (a) (b) (c), illustrate the former; while 
in § 36 (a), § 41 (b), and § 46 (d) the melody and rhythm are of 
equal importance. As the invention of melody is impossible to 
teach, we must content ourselves with pointing out what is 
required, leaving it to the student's own imagination and skill to 
carry the principles here laid down into actual practice. 

53. In analyzing a fugue, it is important to be able to deter- 
mine exactly where the subject ends. In exceptional cases there 
may be a doubt about this ; for instance, three different text- 
books give three different lengths for the subject of the C sharp 
major fugue in the second part of Bach's ' Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier.' In general, however, there is no difficulty. It has 
been already said (§ 42) that the subject should end with a 
cadence. If the subject begins with an accented note, the 
last note of the subject will usually (though not invariably) be 
that on which the answer enters In other cases, the subject 



Chap, it J The Subject. i 7 

will generally end on a cadential figure either just before or just 
after the entrance of the answer. If in doubt we cap generally 
decide the question by seeing how much of the subject is 
imitated in the answer; this will be more clearly seen in the 
next chapter. In the case of a close fugue, where the answer 
enters before the subject is ended, the length of the subject will 
be generally decided by observing how much is imitated in the 
subsequently entering voices. 

54. The student should now practise the invention of fugue 
subjects on the lines indicated in this chapter, bearing in mind 
the chief requirements which may be thus summarized: — (1) 
clearness of tonality; (2) distinctness of form; (3) moderate 
length and compass ; (4) good striking melody ; (5) contrapuntal 
character. He need not trouble himself much about originality ; 
all the best melodic and harmonic combinations for fugue 
subjects have been so frequently employed that novelty in the 
subject itself is now hardly possible. In modern fugues, 
originality (if it exists at all) is to be looked for in the treatment 
of the mater*als rather than in the materials themselves. 



(8 



Fugue. 



[Chap. 111. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE ANSWER. 



55. In our first chapter (§ 9) we defined the answer as " the 
transposition of the subject into the key of the perfect fourth or 
fifth above or below the key of the subject." It is most necessary 
that the student should know how to find the correct answer to 
any given subject ; unfortunately there is hardly any point on 
which the rules given in the older text-books differ so widely from 
the practice of the greatest composers. The rules to be given 
in the present chapter will therefore not be taken from existing 
treatises, but deduced from the works of the great masters 
themselves. 

56. In by far the largest number of cases, the keys in which 
the subject and answer are found are the tonic and dominant. If 
the subject be in the tonic, the answer will be in the dominant ; 
if the subject be in the dominant, the answer will be in the tonic. 
If the subject begin in the tonic and modulate to the dominant, 
the answer will begin in the dominant and modulate to the 
tonic, and vice versa. Occasionally, however, as will be seen 
presently, the place of the dominant is taken by the subdominant. 

57. The answer of a subject may be either real or tonal. It 
is said to be real when it is an exact transposition (with one 
possible exception, to be noticed in its proper place — see § 69) of 
the subject ; it is called tonal when certain alterations, the nature 
of which we shall explain later, have to be made in transposing it. 



(«) 



mgm 



& g 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 33. 

ss. ,» — f± -Si . erf ■ 



S 




Mozart. Quartett in G, No. 14. 



In the above examples the subject is marked S and the answer 
A. At (a) the answer is real ; at (b) it is tonal, the interval of a 
third from G to B being answered by a second fiom D to E. 
Let the student also notice that at (a) the last note of the answer 
is longer than the last note of the subject. We shall meet witb 



Chap. III.) 



The Answer. 



'9 



other instances of this common procedure as we advance ; it is 
always allowed either to lengthen or shorten the first or last note of 
the answer. 

58. As being the easier, we shall first speak of real answers. 
The rule for knowing when a subject can have a real answer 
is very simple, and may be thus stated : — Every subject in which 
there is no modulation to the dominant, either expressed or 
implied,* may have a real answer, excepting, first, when it begins 
on the tonic and leaps to the dominant either direct or with the 
third of the scale as an intermediate note ; and secondly, when it 
begins on the dominant. But even in these two cases a real 
answer is always possible (§§ 101, 105-107). 

59. We shall first give examples of real answers in the 
dominant key to subjects which are in the tonic throughout. 
We shall in each case give the counterpoint to the answer, which 
is, as will be seen, the continuation of the music by the voice 
which has just had the subject; we shall also extend our 
quotations beyond the end of the answer, as this will help the 
student in determining the limits of the subject. Our first 
example illustrates what was said in § 53 — that when the subject 
commences with an accented note, the answer usually enters on 
the last note of the subject — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 15. 




zfcS — r-q*-^ — ^ 


**"l 




#m * - j--f <+F m ' 


h»j^ r *r r rrfTfri 


SB -» ** M «* W: 


p^p«_^ 1 


r=rrr--i i ' i 1 U 


I'S' JJJJv-i^ 




-J~i 


-■HsM — 


**— — *-|--^ "^ 



~f*~ g F g p ' T ' i T g r ~ ? m T * » r F — f~ 

^ &c 



That the subject here ends on the F sharp of the fifth bar (the 
third of the dominant chord — § 42) is proved by the fact that the 
next note, G, is not imitated in the answer. In this example 
the answer is below the subject. 

* What is meant by an implied modulation will be seen when we come to speak 
of tonal answers (§ 118). 



20 Fugue. 

60. In our next examples 



(Chap. 111. 



/ ga <g) 






J. S. Bach. 
A 


Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 29. 


S 4***- 


— m- 


^g— ga 


jr. 




&c. 


V 




tt£L 


J- 1 — F — 


1 L— 


— ! 





r. n .tw 



i 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 43. 
A 



^m 



£e; 



rr.-r i-lVrff , g t Frf * f-f r 



jtf jg^JS^TO-JBiJgJjp 




the answer is above the subject. In both, the subject commences 
on an unaccented note, and ends on the accented note (here at 
the half bar) immediately preceding the entrance of the answer. 

61. The following passage shows some new points — 



( pif» 




J 


. S. Bach. 


Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 9. 

A i _ - 


-f*\ 


s 




1 U 1 - m 




\tP — — 






'■ s j^tf*- 


g = * J J J *z^bg 


333 




Here the answer enters shortly before the end of the subject, 
which terminates at #, the nearest accent to the entry of the 
answer. In § 53 it was said that the length of the subject could 
mostly be determined by seeing how much was imitated by the 
answer. It looks at first sight as if the imitation were here 
continued for another half bar ; but the subject cannot end on 
the D at the beginning of the third bar ; because, in that case, as 
we shall see later in this chapter, the answer could not possibly 
end on A. Besides this, the imitation in the half bar is not 
exact, D sharp being imitated by A natural, not by A sharp. 
The fact is, we have here a common case, in which part of the 



Chap. III.] 



The Answer. 



2\ 



continuation of the subject is imitated in the answer- -sometimes 
strictly, at other times (as here) freely. 

62. In the example just given, the answer entered before the 
end of the subject. In our next 







m- 


:(•* 




t 
« 


Tandel. ' Rkcardo Primo.' 


1 


It s 


Jff'-fr, > 




i&&t> 


1 r 


-T-^- 


3=» 


, g 1* — 


vi— 


-Till LaT r-r- 




§^— ■ , ■ 
















A 5 / » 


























\ 


*) 
















the subject ends (as will be seen by comparing the answer) on the 
first note of the third bar, and the answer does not enter till the 
fourth. Such cases are of frequent occurrence. Here it would 
have been quite possible for Handel to have commenced his 
answer in the third bar ; thus — 



p 



I 



&c. 



but if the student will remember what was said in the last 
chapter about the implied harmony of a fugue subject, he will see 
that at the end of the second bar of this subject there is clearly a 
chord of the dominant seventh implied ; and the continuation we 
have suggested would have been far less satisfactory from a har- 
monic point of view. The passage introduced between the end 
of the subject and the beginning of the answer, which we have 
marked with a | ~| , is called a codetta. In many cases some 
such connecting portion is absolutely necessary. 

63. The following example 

A Haydn. 4th Mass. 




# fff « 



a tad I U 



&c. 



shows a more chromatic subject than those already given. Here 



Fugue. 



[Chap, m 



the answer enters on the last note of the subject, because it begins 
on an accented beat. Our last example was an exception from 
this rule. 



64. In our next example 



1 



Hummel. 1st Mass. 
A 



te=£ 



fcg 



*fz 



ggg 1 r m 1 r-^E-flvr i c^ 7 ^ 



£= 




we see a somewhat rare case. The first voice ceases for some 
time to accompany the answer. The quotation is the commence- 
ment of a fugue with independent orchestral accompaniment ; 
and the tenor, therefore, though the bass is silent, is not left 
entirely alone.* Such treatment is, however, exceptional ; and 
the student is not recommended to imitate it. 



65. Our last example in a major key 



Mendelssohn. 2nd Organ Sonata. 



i 



fjM=a= 



w 



Wm Ji'-u'j j> j - j| i^r^ PFg 




shows the leading-note of the dominant treated as the third of 
the supertonic chromatic chord, and therefore inducing no modu- 
lation. It is consequently answered by C sharp, the third of the 
supertonic chromatic chord in the key of G. The last note of 
the subject, also, is here slightly altered in the answer, being 
delayed by a suspension. 

66. We now give some answers to subjects in minor keys. 
These will always be in the minor of the dominant — never in the 
major. We have seen already (§ 35) that if a minor subject 



See § 441, where the complete exposition of this fugue is quoted. 



Chap. III.] 



The Answer. 



23 



modulates to the dominant, it is always to the dominant minor ; 
and the same rule holds good when the first modulation that is 
made is on the entrance of the answer. This will be seen from 
the two following examples — 



>) 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 4. 
A 



gggS 



S 



: F= 5 



Bffiw rj [gJ EEp 



zm 



= r r ' * s ^ 



^=tt 




g g* r r J ^ 



^zt 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 20. 




67. If the student will examine the various counterpoints 
accompanying the answers we have given, he will see that (like 
the answers themselves) they are in the key of the dominant. 
Were it otherwise, the feeling of tonality would be obscured, for 
the music would be in two keys at once. Occasionally, however, 
the harmony of the dominant key is not clearly defined till toward 
the end of the answer, as in the following example — 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 42. 




24 



Fugue. 



[Chap. III. 



:£:£=££: 



-r ■ t • i7~~T-g 



:x^c 




'n C'lf pj.tr I p h-j ^5 



&c. 



fej , / J 1 1^ 1 j i J jj 



Here the key of D sharp minor, the dominant of G sharp minor, 
is not reached till the third bar of the answer. 

68. Our next example illustrates a point of considerable 
importance — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 46. 



ta 



isa 



m 



*r- 



*^=£ 



Igj^JJ-". 



Jl^^ 



J k j i h -^ 



s 



[ ^■qj- Jjjir-j ,^j i-jj,^ 



'I ffiUEP gj JZS+fr r -rJi& m^ 




Here the last note of the subject is D flat, the minor third of the 
tonic ; but the last note of the answer is not A flat, the minor 
third of the dominant, but A natural, the major third. 

69. That this is by no means an isolated case will be seen by 
the following examples, taken from a much larger number that 
might be given — 

Mozart. Requiem. 



Chap. Ill j 



The Answer. 



25 



(pip 



^~ 



^m 



Ci.ementi. ' Gradus ad Parnassum, No. ?t 



t=t 



■ •F= 



-^ < 



£-PC» 



« 



S 



Codetta. 



mm 




.Further illustrations of this point will be met with when we come 
to tonal fugues. The following rule is fully justified by the 
practice of the great masters : — 

Whenever a subject in a minor key ends on the third of the tonic, 
the answer may end on either the major or minor third of the 
dominant, as may be preferred. 

70. If the subject be throughout in the key of the dominant, 
the answer will be in the key of the tonic- 



(*)s, 



J. S. Bach. Ouverture (Suite) in F. 



fH 



-1 1 



rf m ]* a=xfc£zg I p g p ig— 


(rr) 1 - — ' ' ! 'mwiii ■■' J '. 1 1. 1. 1 1,, 1 *i 


&C. 


.S^SK^^^S^ 



<*> 














A 

— r~f- 


Handel. ' Samson. 

-r — r — m — r — i 






-f" — i- 


"M 


1 ^ - 


=3= 


— r 1 , 


=j p m m J J^-Jr^r 


il 11 ^ j 




-1 — «- 


-f— - 


-*-r- 


=4= 


« • 




1 1 1 1 1 




It is important to notice that the answer is now a fourth above, 
or a fifth below, instead of being (as in previous cases) a fifth 
above, or a fourth below, the subject. 



26 



'UGUE. 



(Chan. III. 



71. By an extension of this relation of subject and answer, 
we sometimes find that when the subject is in the tonic, the 
answer is in the subdominant, instead of the dominant — 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Der Himmel lacht. " 



(a)S 




Here the subject is in C, and the answer is no less clearly in F. 
The commencement of the answer illustrates what was said in 
§ 57, the initial notes being lengthened — 

/i\ g J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in C. 




efc^pgpgWg^r 


-pL-^jp 


Pg& 


rfr*r • 




wSL ~ 


^ryj% 


jFff: 


n A — - 


iM 


1 , LU m i.„i 1 „^, ±±^yj 


tss 


-rfam 


&c. 










r ^r 1* ^s 


y — ■g.-g* 1 i 


ad- -- — 










p^ 


— J — 



Here again the answer is in the subdominant. The alteration of 
the semitone near the end (B natural answering F natural) is 
frequently to be met with (§ 144) — 



if) 



Mendelssohn. " Surrexit pastorv 



m 



9 



*-*— - 



r^J JUj j jj7^^ 



» 



^=^ 



&c. 



i 



m 



Here the answer is in the fourth above, instead of the fifth below. 
This fugue has an independent organ accompaniment (not 
quoted), which still more clearly proves the key of the answer 
to be C. 

72. If we examine the three subjects last given, we shall see 
that in all of them prominence is given to the dominant or to 



Chap. III.] 



The Answer. 



27 



notes of the dominant harmony. The same thing will be found 
in our examples in a minor key, in which an answer in the 
subdominant is much more common than in a major key — 

„ J. S. Bach. Partita in B minor 



A 




Here the subject commences with the arpeggio of the dominant 
seventh ; then comes tonic harmony, and then dominant harmony 
again. The answer is now in the subdominant, in order to carry 
out the important principle that dominant harmony should be 
answered by tonic. 

73. As the possibility of a fugal answer being in the key of 
the subdominant has not, so far as we know, been touched upon 
in any existing treatise, it will be needful to give a considerable 
number of examples by the greatest masters — not only to 
establish the fact, but to enable us to deduce the necessary rules 
for the student's guidance in deciding when such an answer is 
advisable. Our next example deserves close examination — 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Herr, Deine Augen. 

A 




Here the subject does not, like those previously given, begin with 
a note of the dominant chord ; but the diminished fifth immedi- 
ately following clearly indicates the chord of the dominant 
seventh. In the next bar is a modulation to the dominant 
key, the return to the tonic being made in the third bar 



28 



Fugue. 



[Chap. III. 



74. Now let us examine the answer. The first note is C 
This cannot be regarded as a subdominant, because the tonic at 
the commencement of a subject cannot be answered by a 
subdominant. We have already seen that it is almost invariably 
answered by dominant — that is to say, by the tonic of the key in 
which the answer appears. The C here must therefore be 
considered not as the subdominant of G minor, but as the tonic 
of C minor. This choice of a key for the answer enables Bach to 
carry out the important general principle already mentioned, and 
of which we shall have more to say when we come to speak of 
tonal answers, that dominant harmony in the subject should be 
replied to by tonic harmony in the answer. Here we have the 
do?ninant seventh chord in G at the first bar of the subject, 
answered by the notes of the tonic seventh of G in the first bar of 
the answer. It would have been quite possible to give a real 
answer for this bar, beginning on the dominant ; but then the 
dominant harmony of the subject would have been answered by 
the supertonic harmony, instead of the tonic. 

75. It will also be seen that at the second bar of the subject 
there is a modulation to the dominant key. Such a modulation 
is almost invariably answered by a return to the tonic key. Here, 
however, the tonic harmony in the answer is really the harmony of 
the dominant of C minor. Had the answer not been in the key 
of the subdominant, a tonal answer would have been necessary. 

76. Our next illustrations, containing no modulation, 

J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in D minor. 

> * , — P» 








— y , -u u |j 


ii* — 1* — m — r — 


ff m M 


, ,r>r »r-r 1 


(' h 1 r 1 r 


— 1 .1 l — ' ' ■- L. 



Chap. Ill .1 



The Answer. 



** 



further show the answering of dominant harmony at the 
commencement of the subject by tonic harmony at the beginning 
of the answer. The two subjects are somewhat similar in 
character. 

77. The same point is exemplified in the following — 

J. S. Bach. Art of Fugue, No. 10. 



f fgg u g r =g 



iw^ 



pt& 



st 



■ 



m& 



r (g 




The subject here begins on the leading note. We shall see when 
we come to tonal answers that the leading note, excepting when it 
is merely an auxiliary note of the tonic, is almost invariably 
considered as the third of the dominant, and answered accordingly 
by the major third of the tonic (§ 131). This is the case here, 
and any other answer than that which Bach has given in the 
subdominant key, will either sacrifice this reply of tonic to 
dominant, or (if a tonal answer) distort the subject almost 
beyond recognition. It should be specially noticed that the 
' Art of Fugue ' from which this example is taken, was expressly 
written by Bach for the purpose of showing the possibilities of 
fugal composition ; his giving an example of an answer in the sub- 
dominant key may therefore be fairly taken as proving, apart from 
all the other examples we have given, that he considered such an 
answer correct. 

78. The last example we shall give from Bach 

J. S. Bach. Suite for Orchestra, in D. 




is similar in character, and even more pronounced. The subject, 
except the last note, is formed entirely of dominant harmony, 



3° 



Fugue. 



[Chap. 111. 



which is therefore answered by corresponding tonic harmony. 
The counterpoint accompanying the answer conclusively proves 
the key of the answer to be G. 

79. We now add a few examples, by other composers, of rea) 
answers in the subdominant key — 

Handel. ' Solomon. 




Beethoven. Quartett, Op. 131 



<pV» jiiT"?- 1 -r-jTTJ J j 1 ,1 rtt 



ii 



ft! 



4/>P 



Sfr 



r jJ*J p 



^ J^g g g 1 — ^ — n — 1 ^-] 








=££& ■' — 1 ' 


&c. 










r 9 (c) 


-^Hp 


i-*v- 


Schumann. 


-1 - 

T ughetta, Op. 126, No. 2. 

A , | 


^\) P w 




M- 


: u V ' 


Codetta. 

s 1 J_ 


1 




1 1 1 n<i Ji~ 




Itr— — ^ — "^ 


* « 


1 3 * 


*-** "■»- 




-*-— i^r 



&c. 



After what has been said, these examples require no further 
remark. 

80. We shall find a few more examples of answers in the 
subdominant when we come to treat of tonal answers, but we 
have already given enough to enable us to generalize from. The 
rule to be deduced from an examination of these and similar 
passages is the following : — 

Whenever, in a subject which ends in the key of the tonic, 
particular prominence is given to dominant harmony, especially near 



Chap. III.] 



The Answer. 



V 



the beginning of the subject, the answer may be in the subdominant 
key, in order to conform to the important general principle that 
dominant harmony in the subject should be replied to by tonic 
harmony in the answer. 

81. If the whole subject be in the key of the subdominant, 
the answer will be in the key of the tonic — 













A 


Handel. 

■ 1 i 1 | 


Jephtha.' 


s .-- 


m- 


m. 


1 f to 


r f 




m m 


->■ • z 



In this case the relationship of the two keys is evidently the same 
as that of tonic and dominant. 

82. If the subject begin in the key of the subdominant and 
modulate to the tonic, the answer will begin m the key of the 
tonic and modulate to the dominant — 



Handel. 'Alexander's Feast.' 




The subject here ends on the first crotchet of the third bar. It 
begins in G minor and modulates in the second bar to D minor. 
The answer begins in D minor and modulates to A minor. The 
proof that the subject commences in G minor is found in the first 
note of the answer. If Handel had regarded A as the dominant 
of D minor, instead of the supertonic of G minor, he would have 
answered it, according to the laws of tonal fugue, by D and 
not E. 

S3. Intermediate modulations (except to the key of the 
dominant) should be imitated exactly in the answer — 



(M^f 














Iandel. ' Semele.' 


fl5!- / i$ — 1 : ~z~. | — : z 






s r 


"l*~ 1* 


^m ■ 


St 









(& : L>.(k 1 




1 1 r T 


-£- 


3E 


—0 *- 


-r- — l f— 1 i 


V 




1 1 — ' — 


1 


r— ! 


4=1= 


-1 — 1 


r-e> \ 



W=t 



t=± 



m 



-0—r- 



g t=3 =f 



r r?0r 



3* 



Fugue [Cha P . in 

J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue, in A minor. 



(pi 




In the second bar of the major subject at (a) is seen a 
modulation to the subdominant, imitated at the same point of the 
answer; and in the third bar of the minor subject at (b) a 
modulation to the relative major, replied to by a similar modula- 
tion to the relative major (G major) of the dominant. 

84. In order to understand what is meant by a tonal answer, 
we must remember that each of the old Ecclesiastical scales, out 
of which our modern scales were developed, had two " modes," 
one of which was a fourth below the other, but contained the 
same notes. If the scale was from final to final (or, as we 
should now say, from tonic to tonic), and the dominant was 
in the middle, the mode was said to be authentic, if, on the other 
hand, the scale was from dominant to dominant, with the final in 
the middle, the mode was called plagal. Each scale was divided 
into two unequal halves by the dominant or the final. Let 
us take, for example, the old Dorian mode — 

Authentic. 

$ 



Plagal. 



■&- •=>" 



The dominant in the authentic mode and the final in the plagal 
are marked in this example. It will be seen that the lower half 
of the authentic scale has the compass of a fifth, and the upper 
half the compass of a fourth ; while the plagal scale has a fourth 
for the lower half, and a fifth for the upper. 

85. The old rule for fugal answer was that a subject made in 



Chap III.] 



The Answer. 



33 



either half of the authentic scale should be answered in the 
corresponding half of the plagal scale, and vice versd. For 
instance, if the subject began with the leap between tonic and 
dominant, in the lower half of the authentic scale, 



i 



w 



the answer would begin with the leap between dominant and 

tonic, 



i 



these being the corresponding lowest and highest notes of the 
lower half of the plagal scale ; and conversely, if the subject 
began in the lower half of the plagal scale, with the leap up from 
dominant to tonic, or down from tonic to dominant, the answer 
would begin in the lower half of the authentic scale with the leap 
up from tonic to dominant, or down from dominant to tonic. 

86. The rule to be found in nearly every work on fugue 
respecting tonal answer is, that if a subject leaps from tonic 
to dominant, either direct or through the third of the tonic, 
the answer must be tonal — that is to say, the tonic must be 
answered by the dominant, and the dominant by the tonic. This 
is a good rule enough, if it were only observed ; but, as we shall 
proceed to show, the great masters, from Bach and Handel 
downwards, " drive a coach and four through it " continually. If 
we wish to conform to their practice, we shall have to modify this 
rule very considerably. 

87. Evidently the first thing to be done is, to find out what 
the practice of the great masters really was in this respect. For 
this purpose a large number of quotations will be necessary. It 
may be at once admitted that in the majority of instances they 
conformed to the old rule ; but quite enough examples will be found 
in which it is broken to show that they did not regard it as one of 
the laws of the Medes and Persians. In the examples now to be 
given, we shall no longer add the counterpoint that accompanies 
the subject, because the student will by this time have learnt how 
to find out where the subject ends ; instead of this, we shall put 
the answer under the subject, in order that the two may be more 
easily compared. 

88. We first give examples in which the old rule is strictly 
followed. Of these there are plenty. 

a J. S. Bach. 



Wohltemperirtes Clavier, 



Fugue 31 

■m- 




This specimen of a simple tonal answer illustrates more than one 
point of some importance. The subject is here in the tonic ; the 



34 



Fugue 



[Chap. III. 



answer will therefore be in the key of the ck minant ; and, except 
the first note of the second bar, every note of the subject be- 
longing to the key of E flat must be answered by the corres- 
ponding note of the key of B flat. It must be especially noticed 
that though the note B flat (the dominant of E flat) is used four 
times in the course of the subject, it is answered every time 
except the first by F, and not by the tonic, E flat. The rule of 
answering tonic by dominant, and dominant by tonic, applies only 
to the beginning of a subject and to passages where a modulation to 
the dominant occurs. In the present case the claims of the law 
are satisfied as soon as E-B at the beginning of a subject has 
been answered by B-E ; after this, the rest of the subject is 
transposed,, as if the answer were real, into the key of the 
dominant. The following notes of the subject are respectively 
the subdominant, mediant, submediant, and dominant of E flat ; 
and they are answered by the subdominant, mediant, submediant, 
and dominant of B flat — and so on, to the end of the answer. 
There is no mistake which students are more apt to make in 
beginning to write tonal answers than to answer dominant by 
tonic every time these notes occur. This is almost invariably 
wrong. 

89. If we look at the second bar of the above example, we 
shall find that an interval of a second in the subject has become 
a unison in the answer. Whenever a subject begins with the 
leap from tonic to dominant, it always, if answered tonally, causes 
a change in the following interval. Here the first and third notes 
of the subject are the tonic and subdominant of the tonic key ; 
the first and third notes of the answer are the tonic and sub- 
dominant of the dominant key : but the difference in the size of 
the first leap of the subject (a fifth), as compared with the leap of 
a fourth in the answer, makes a difference also in the interval 
between the second and third notes. We give two more illus- 
trations of the same point — 

J. S. Bach. 
Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 17. 
,(*)S 




At (a) a third in the subject becomes a second in the answer ; at 
(b) a second in the subject becomes a third in the answer. Note. 



Chap. III.) 



The Answer. 



3.5 



in passing, the shortening of the last note of the answer at 

(*)-(§ 57). 

90. That the answering of tonic by dominant, and dominant 
by tonic, applies only to the beginning of the subject is clearly 
shown by the examples of real answers quoted in § 59 and § 83 
(&), both of which contain the leap from tonic to dominant in the 
second bar, not answered by the leap from dominant to tonic. 

91. Though the general practice of the great masters is, as 
has been already said, to answer the leap between tonic and 
dominant tonally, a real answer under such circumstances is not 
infrequent, especially when the leap is downwards— 



(*)S 



J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in G mi 







Handel. ' Susanna 



m 



$ 



^^ 



J ri i r j r*rrr 



1EE 



(P^V 


r^ 


[— f 51 - 


pi 


Handel. * 


SauL 

\— 


w^= 


& . 


pp= 


-f*~ 


1 r r r 

1*' P" jEJ 


f=*= 


IFh-Sj 

V 


-1 


1 


— 1 


1 ■ 1 r 


-*-J 






Handel. Violin Sonata in A. 



1*- | P- 



j^^ 



a=* 



/ h W s 




Schumann. 


Mass in C minor. 


/( \y , >| ^ ^, 






If b A 1 




&c. 










(v l>: ^ 


— sH — 


— <s" 1 1 — 




__j 1 — 


\ *J 








f* & 



In not one of these examples (and more could be given) is 
dominant answered by tonic, but in each instance by the domi- 
nant of the dominant key. 



36 



Fugue. 



[Chap. in. 



92. When the tonic goes to the dominant through the third of 
the scale, the rule of the old text-books is that the answer should 
be tonal. We give two examples by Bach — 



(«)s 



J. S. Bach. Four Duets (No. 2). 







J. S. Bach. 
Cantata, " Icb hatte vie! Bekummernisc' 



g^ 



^ 



-5-Bt 



£=3 



£ 



&c. 



Lf c 1 r H g 



In both these cases the dominant is answered by the tonic. But 
these subjects belong to a large class — those that begin with the 
notes of the tonic chord taken in succession. In such cases the 
great masters give a real answer nearly, if not quite, as often as a 
tonal one. We give specimens of both : one example of a tonal 
answer to a subject of this kind has been already seen at § 89 (a). 
Where the subjects are long we shall quote only the commence- 
ment, as the rule is never intended to apply to the middle of an 
answer, but only to its beginning. 



93. We give first some tonal answers — 
(«)s 



J. S. Bach. 
Organ Toccata and Fugue in C. 




tf) 



J. S. Bach. Concerto for Two Claviers. 




In both these cases the D is only an auxiliary or passing-note ; 
and it is quite evident that the subject commences with tonic 
harmony. In our next examples no passing-notes are introduced ; 



Chap. III. 



The Answer. 



37 



both begin with the notes of the tonic chord. Observe at (d) 
another instance of the lengthening of the last note of the answer. 



ws 



Haydn. ' Seasons.' 




(d) S 



Haydn. 5th Mass. 




94. We now give a number of examples where the leap 
between tonic and dominant has a real answer, because the 
subject begins with the notes of the tonic chord — 



' s if (a) s 


J. S. Bach. Cantata, 


' Es 1st dir gesagt." 


• A p-1 


Lj p_ U_ 




&c. 








1 — I 



,^)S 



J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Bringet dem Herrn Ehre seines Namens.' 




(c)S 



J. S. Bach. Sonata in D. 




Tn all these instances, taken from the works of Bach, the answers 
are real. After what has been said, no further explanation will 
be required. 

95. In the works of Handel we find a real answer in such 



3* 



Fugue. 



[Chap III. 



cases even more frequently than in the works of Bach. We give 
five examples — 

i a \.q Handel. ' Theodora.' 



^H-u jrrW i 



l» A r ? 



fVV \ r r \r I I J- 



/ («s 



Handel. * Israel in Egypt.' 



^Jli-J_J_| I^J-jg^j-f 



4 * — *- 



4=2: 



a=T 



H -iir J r r 1 r r J I 



ws 



Handel. 9th Organ Concerto. 
tr 




Handel. 1st Grand Concerto. 

:gr m p g p c 




Handel. Tolomeo.' 




96. In the following answer we see that J. Christian Bach, the 
youngest son of the great John Sebastian, adopted the same plan 
as his father — 




Chap. III.] 



The Answer. 



39 



97. Our next examples are more modern 



(«)S 



Mendhlssohn. Christus.' 




ib"'<< ;^ 



Schumann. 'Faust.' 




I 



a== 



^ 



s 



p 



9 



*=t 



It is only needful to remark that in the latter part of example (a) 
there is a modulation. The principle by which this part of the 
answer is regulated will be explained in the next chapter. 

98. In Cherubini's Treatise on Fugue we find the following 
example of a real answer to a subject going to the dominant 
through the third of the scale — 



Cherubini Treatise on Fugue. 




Cherubini gives this without a word of explanation ; it is clear, 
therefore, that he did not regard it as an irregularity. 

99. Two more passages will complete our illustrations of this 
point — 

Clementi. Gradus ad Parnassum, No. 45. 




<*)S 



Verdi. Requiem. 




4 o 



Fugue. 



[Chap. in. 



ioo. If we examine and compare all the examples we have 
given of subjects founded upon the notes of the tonic chord, and 
taking real answers, we shall find that there is an important 
principle involved in all of them. We have already shown that 
the tonal answer is the result of the old modal systems (§§ 84, 85), 
which prevailed before modern tonality, as now understood, was 
fixed. In all these cases, however, the old rule gives way to a 
higher and more important law, to which reference has already 
been made, and which has a wider application. This is the 
broad principle which is the very basis of fugal answer — that 
tonic harmony should be answered by dominant, and dominant 
by tonic. If we look at the tonal answers already given — for 
instance, § 93 (c), (d) — we shall find that the strong suggestion of 
tonic harmony in the first three notes of the subject is not replied 
to by an equally strong suggestion of dominant harmony in the 
first three notes of the answer. In both these examples the 
second note destroys the feeling of the dominant at once. When 
the dominant as the second note of the subject is not followed by 
another note of the tonic chord, the feeling of the tonic harmony 
is not so pronounced ; and here a tonal answer may frequently be 
employed with advantage. In this case, however, adherence to 
the old rule will sometimes injure the form of the answer. This 
will be seen in the following example — 



(*)S 



Handel. 4 Hercules." 



iisjlJ lJ^e 



irr~t 



&c. 



g^ ^z^ E Eg^a 



Here the character of the subject is entirely ruined by the 
monotonous repetition of the Fs in the answer. A real answer 
here would have been far more effective. In example (d) of 
§ 91, where Handel has given a real answer, the effect of a tonal 
answer would have been even worse — 



1 01. The rule for the guidance of the student to be deduced 
from the examples given is as follows : — 

If a subject commence with the leap from tonic to dominant ', and 
the following note is not a note of the tonic chord, a tonal answer is 
generally \ though not invariably, preferable ; but if at least the first 
three notes of the subject are all notes of the tonic chord, the answer, 
provided that no modulation takes place to the key of the dominant, 
may be either real or tonal. 



Chap. III. 



The Answer. 



41 



102. We now have to consider an important class of sub- 
jects — those that commence on the dominant. The old rule 
again was here absolute — that when the subject began on the 
dominant the answer must begin on the tonic* This rule, like 
that discussed in §§ 86, 87, is observed by the great masters in 
the large majority of instances ; but numerous exceptions are to 
be found to it. A few examples of its observance will first be 
given— 



(«)S 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 13 
vr 




f 


0) 


S 4*. 

s -1 : w 


— m-. 


■ f f ^ 


J. 

— m— 


S. Bach. 


Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 40. 


£§#: 


I - 










?Jm, A . ■ : e 




I | m - 


I fp |"pH 


1 — ~~ m 


v «. 


^ 


: +— 






-^ J - 


I d * — 




m m m mi m » 


-* WhJ* ■ 



In these answers, which contain no modulation, the first note is 
the only one which differs from a real answer. The dominant in 
the third bar of (b) is not answered by the tonic. Sometimes, 
however (though much more rarely), the dominant is answered by 
the tonic on its later appearances, as in the following answers — 



J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in E flat (St. Ann's). 





, Qh (fi) 


S 








- 




A 


-4 -J- 




1 g 


{ 




li 1 1 


Mendelssohn. 


' Elijah.' 




A ^ 




^ ' 




\ 




w — 


L — ' 


— ^ — 1 


y ' l*«i ^ J " 





* If, however, the dominant was an unaccented note of small value, a real 
answer was sometimes allowed even by the old theorists. 



43 



Fugue 



[Chap HI. 



103. Our next examples give further illustrations in the last 
note of their answers of the rule given in § 69 — 



Handel. ' Messiah. 




At the second and third bars of (a) we also see an incidental 
modulation into the key of the subdominant, already referred to 
in § 41. It will be observed that the answer here modulates 
to the tonic (the subdominant of the dominant key). 

104. When the subject begins on the dominant and leaps to 
the tonic, the answer usually begins on the tonic and leaps to the 
dominant — 

q J. S. Bach. Art of Fugue, No. 14. 




Note the slight change in the form of the subject at the end of 
the answer to (b). 

105. The student will have no difficulty in finding any 
number of answers in which the general rule we have given is 
adhered to ; we now proceed to give examples in which it is not 
observed. Our first group will be answers to subjects which 
commence with the notes of the tonic chord — 

J. S. Bach. Christmas Oratorio. 




Chap. III. 



The Answer. 



43 



lb) S ,ii. 


1 pg = , r r * P - 


Handel. 4th Oboe Concetto. 


^y — 1^- — * — ' 

p A , r - 




U- *«L£_J jj^rl 

r-#-_ p IP" ^-p- 




\ «/ ' — ' — *- — ' 









Handel. Anthem, " Let God arise. 




A p J WS 


- p 




Padre Martini. 

-f-r — u br *r f 


A « nn— TTM-n 


4; 


&c. 






Itr * 




=« 


1 ^*ZJ*z& ^ 



jw s 



Schumann. ' Paradise and the Peri.' 




, . <^> S 



Hummel. 3rd Mass. 




These are parallel cases to those given in §§ 94-99. In all 
of them the subject begins with tonic harmony and the answer 
replies with dominant harmony. Notice in example (/) an 
incidental modulation to the key of the supertonic minor. The 
imitation is here exact (§ 83). 



44 



Fugue. 



[Chap TTI. 



106. We next give instances in which the leap from dominant 
to tonic is not followed by another note of the tonic chord — 

Handel. Utrecht Te Deum. 



.(«) S 




f)flt ws 



Handel. Anthem, " O come let us 



ULl IS 1 r : * 



32: 



A 



m 



m 



3^ 



(c)S 



Beethoven. Mass in D. 



,ff r-l!"T C J m 



*=& 



(d)3 



SE 



m 



Beethoven. ' Mount of Olives.' 



g dtp 



rrTr i r 



S 




ll a i 



ps 



£ 



^ 



The answer at (*) looks irregular ; but there is here an implied 
modulation (§ 118). The subject after the second note is 
regarded as being in the dominant key, and therefore answered 
by the corresponding notes of the tonic key. 

107. Lastly we give examples in which the dominant is 
followed by some other note than the tonic — 

g J. S. Bach. Cantata, "Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit." 



Chap III.] 



,(3)S 



The Answer. 

J. S. Bach. Fugue for Clavier, in A. 



45 




Handel. 
Anthem, " Have merc y upon me, God. 



tfti W J J- 3 J.j I J a 



&c. 



J ffi ^ J j-^J .Jl ^^ 



(/)S 



ho... 



Mendelssohn. 95th Psalm. 



teflKJ i r r p 



r r Up- - r 1 f ^ 



I 



A 



I I p 



fe^FFg 



-r p 



^ 



S 



x=t 





» • P ■ Q 


F^H 


^bn 1 F ■ — P 

|P r - f p^e= 


* • * 1 jg 

_pr _ 1 


1- — \— 

f r 


nl 9 1 F — ' 1 — 

\ 1 j 







We have only to note with regard to these examples that in the first 
bar of (b) is a not uncommon case, G sharp being answered not 
by D sharp but by D natural. Such disregard of the exact 
quality of intervals is not infrequent; we shall meet with more 
instances later. At the end of (/) the subject modulates to the 
dominant \ the answer here is exceptional, and will be discussed 
in our next chapter. 



4<> 



Fugue. 



[ChaD. Ill 



1 08. We have given quite enough examples to prove that the 
rule as to answering dominant by tonic at the commencement of 
a subject is by no means so " absolute " as it is declared to be by 
many theorists. For this there are two reasons. First there 
is the general principle already referred to in § 100, that tonic 
harmony in the subject should be replied to by dominant harmony 
in the answer. This is illustrated by the examples in §§ 105, 106. 
Besides this, the melodic form of the subject should be kept 
unchanged as far as possible; and it is quite evident that in 
many cases the great composers felt this to be of much more 
importance than the keeping of an old rule which was made 
before modern tonality was established. 

109. A further proof that but little weight was attached to the 
necessity for a tonal answer is found in the fact that sometimes in 
the first exposition of a fugue the first answer will be tonal and 
the second real, as in the following case — 



' M 



BM. 



3=3= 



e 



J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in A. 



&c. 



I 



A 



A 1. 



*=4=* 



3^ 



£ 



&c. 



m 



A 2. 

f & r- 



m 



■&c 



Here the first answer is tonal, the first note being shortened 
(§57)> but the second answer (still forming part of the ex- 
position, in which strictness is expected) is real. In the later 
entries of a subject, we continually meet with real answers where 
tonal have been given at first. 

no. We saw in § 104 a subject which, except the first note, 
was in the key of the dominant, the answer being in the key of 
the tonic. We have also seen, in discussing real answers, how an 
extension of the same relation of subject and answer rendered 
an answer sometimes possible in the subdominant key (§ 71). A 
similar answer is also possible where the first note of the subject 
is answered tonally, as in the following examples — 



J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Es ist euch gut dass ich hingche." 




Chap. III.] 



The Answer. 



47 



Buxtehude. Organ Fugue in G minor. 



/-fM, W£ V 

■/ b^-p > m p m m — 


1 J3TJ J;- p j^-J-J- Jjr^i ■'* " 


A 




^P-L- hJJJJ 


1 J J * J * jJ* J'J J-^J,jJ ' J- 



In example (a) we have quoted the counterpoint accompanying 
the answer, to prove more clearly that the latter is in the sub- 
dominant key. The two examples by Buxtehude are very similar 
in the character of their subjects. In all these subjects the 
prominence given to dominant harmony, which we have already 
mentioned as a feature of all subjects which are answered in the 
subdominant, will again be noticed. 

in. Sometimes in the exposition of a fugue the first answer 
is in the key of the dominant, and the second in that of the 
subdominant, as in the following passages — 



(a) 



J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Es wartet Alles auf Dich. 




<*) s 



Schumann. 'Neujahrslied. 



gyr-r-g-r-ry L r I : L a* Lfi * rff^ 



Al. 



a 



rr^r 



m i» 



%»■ 



i — r 



ftt 



i r 



^ 



5E?E 



ft* 



a-*£g- 



^^^^^^ 



r^JT^ H5 



^g=ES 



ii2. The proper method of answering subjects that modulate 
into the key of the dominant will be treated in the next chapter. 
We now sum up our conclusions with regard to the subjects we 
have already dealt with. From a careful investigation of the 
practice of the greatest composers, we deduce the following 
principle : — 

Though frequently expedient, and even preferable, a tonal 
answer is never absolutely necessary for any subject which does not 
modulate between the keys of the tonic and dominant* 



* A merely incidental modulation to the dominant (as in the example to § 73) 
does not necessitate a tonal answer. 



48 Fugue. [Chap. in. 

113. In concluding this chapter it is needful to give the 
student a most urgent warning with regard to the use of this 
book. It is not written as a " cram " for examinations ; and 
although all the rules given in the present chapter are founded 
upon the practice of the great masters and enforced by their 
example, yet in the present condition of musical examinations, 
any student who attempts to carry into practice the principles here 
given will almost inevitably be "ploughed." The old theorists 
mostly follow one another blindly, like a flock of sheep through a 
hedge; and examiners in general adhere to the musty rules of 
two hundred years ago, taking little or no account of the progress 
made by music since that time. The old rules have therefore 
been in all cases given in this chapter, and those who are going 
up for examination had better adhere to them until examiners 
become more enlightened and liberal. Our object in this, as in 
the other volumes of this series, has been to found our teaching 
on the practice of the great composers who have brought our art 
to its present state of advancement ; but Bach himself breaks far 
too many of the antiquated rules to have had much chance of 
passing, had he gone up for a Doctor's degree at one of our 
universities. 



on»p. iv. ) The Answer. 49 



CHAPTER IV. 

1HE ANSWER — CONTINUED. 

114. In our last chapter we showed that a tonal answer, 
though often advisable, was never absolutely necessary for any 
subject which did not modulate to the key of the dominant. 
We have now to deal with the treatment of the answer to 
subjects in which such a modulation occurs. 

115. In order to render intelligible the principles on which 
we shall have to proceed, it is needful here to anticipate some- 
what, and to say that in the exposition (§ 11) of a fugue, only 
two principal keys are employed— mostly tonic and dominant, 
occasionally tonic and subdominant. In an enormous majority 
of cases the keys will be tonic and dominant. We saw in the 
last chapter that if the subject were in the key of the tonic, and 
remained in it, the answer would be and remain in the key ot 
the dominant. The third voice will almost invariably enter with 
the subject, and the fourth, if there be four, with the answer. In 
such cases the answer will generally be real, or if there be any 
tonal alteration, it will only affect the first two or three notes of 
the subject. 

116. But now suppose that instead of ending, as it begins, in 
the tonic key, the subject modulates to and finishes in the 
dominant, as in the case given at § 57 (b). It is quite clear 
that if we give a real answer in this case, the answer will end in 
the dominant of the dominant, that is, in the key of the 
supertonic — 



p 



S 



Here we have not only introduced a third principal key, where, 
as was said in the last paragraph, there ought only to be two ; 
but (what is still more objectionable) we have modulated to an 
unrelated key (Harmony > § 273). To get back to the tonic key 
for the entry of the third voice, we shall have to introduce an 
awkward and probably clumsy join by means of a codetta. In 
order not to wander away into an unrelated key, and to confine 
ourselves to the two chief keys already mentioned, which will 
always be at a distance of a fifth apart, we require a tonal answer 
here, and adhere to the old rule. This is : — If the subject begin 
in the tonic, and modulate to the dominant, the answer must begin 
in the dominant and modulate to the tonic. 



5° 



Fugue. 



fChap. »v. 



117. This important rule needs to be supplemented by 
another: — The modulation in the answer from dominant back to 
tonic must be made at the same point at which the modulation was 
made in the subject from tonic to dominant. This rule will be fully 
illustrated as we proceed. 

118. The modulation in a fugue subject may be either 
expressed or implied. It is expressed when the leading note of 
the dominant key appears as a note of the subject, as in example, 
§57 (&)• It i s implied when, although the leading note of the 
new key is not actually present, the whole form of the melody, 
and especially its last notes, show more or less distinctly that 
they are looked at as belonging to the key of the dominant, and 
when they produce the mental effect of being in that key. 

119. The examples now to be given will show what is meant 
by implied modulation — 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Ich hatte viel Bektlminerniss." 



<*) 






wT r ' 


g m g p^- 




g m . 






V) 






J. S. Bach. 


Cantata, " Gotl 


ist mein 
I 1 | 


I — ^—\ — 
K.onig." 


IUI ic) 




J. S. Bt 

— V, __ 


iCH. Cantata, ' 


Ein' feste Burg. " 













Handel. ' Saul. 




It will be seen that in all these passages the mental impression of 
the last notes is unmistakably that of a modulation to the 
dominant ; and it may be stated as a general rule that, whenever 
a subject ends with the descent from the submediant to the 
dominant of the tonic key, a modulation is implied, and these 
two notes are considered to be the supertonic and tonic of the 
dominant key. 

120. Sometimes the great composers choose to consider a 
modulation as implied when there is no absolute necessity for it — 

J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in C. 




Here we see from the answer given by Bach that he implies a 
modulation in the second bar, though a real answer would have 
been perfectly correct. Had he regarded E as the third of C t he 



Chap. IV.] 



The Answer. 



5» 



would have answered it by B, the third of G ; but he regards it as 
the sixth of G, and therefore answers it by A, the sixth of C. 
When a subject modulates to the key of the dominant, all that 
part which is in the tonic key is transposed in the answer a fifth 
higher, or a fourth lower ; and that part which is in the key of 
the dominant is transposed a fourth higher, or a fifth lower. 

1.2 1. The next question is, when there is a modulation, at 
what point are we to consider it as taking place ? The general 
practice of the great composers is to regard the modulation as being 
made at the earliest possible pointy and from that point to consider 
every note in its relation to the new key. 

122. That the student may quite clearly understand what is 
meant by this, we will take all the notes in the scale of C major, 
and show how each can be correctly answered in two ways, 
according to the point of view from which it is looked at. Sup- 
posing our fugue to be in the key of C, and that a modulation to 
the dominant occurs in the subject, the answer to each note 
will depend on whether that note comes before or after the 
modulation : — 

C, if regarded as tonic of C, will be answered by G ; but if 
regarded as the subdominant of G, it will be answered by F, the 
subdominant of C. 

D, as the supertonic of C, will be answered by A, the supertonic 
of G ; but D, as the dominant of G, will be answered by G, the 
dominant of C. 

Similarly E, as the third of C is answered by B, the third of 
G ; but if considered as the sixth of G (as in the example in 
§ 120), it will be answered by A, the sixth of C. 

F, the subdominant of C, is answered by C ; but, as the minor 
seventh of G, it will be answered by B flat. 

G is answered by D when it appears as a dominant, and by C 
when it is treated as a tonic. 

A as a submediant is answered by E, and as a supertonic by D. 

B, the leading note of C, is answered by F sharp ; but if the 
context shows it to be the major third of G, it will be answered 
by E, the major third of C. 

123. If the student clearly understands this possible double 
relation of every note it will save him an infinity of trouble in 
making a correct tonal answer. We will now analyze a few short 
examples illustrating the principle just laid down that the modu- 
lation should be considered as taking place as early as possible. 

124. As an extremely simple example, we will first take the 
short passage by Mozart, already quoted in § 57 — 



Mozart. Quartett in G, No. 14. 




i 



ti=§E 



£ 



52 



Fugue, 



[Chap. IV. 



Here there is in the subject a distinct modulation to D ; the 
answer therefore modulates back to G. B, the second note of 
the subject, could have been answered either by F sharp or E ; but 
had Mozart answered it by F sharp, the resemblance of answer to 
subject would have been spoilt — 



There would, besides, have been another fault of almost more 
importance. The subject has a distinct modulation to the 
dominant; the last three notes unquestionably suggest the key 
of D. The answer therefore should as clearly suggest G ; but in 
its altered form it does not do so at all, as the first four notes all 
belong to the tonic chord of D. Neither shall we improve 
matters by putting B for the third note of the answer instead of 
A ; for then the answer will not distinctly suggest any key at all, 
the first four notes now being notes of the tonic chord of 
B minor. There is, therefore, no other correct answer than that 
which Mozart gives, and, having reached the dominant key at 
the second note, he regards all the rest of the subject as being in 
that key, and accordingly treats E as supertonic of D — not as 
submediant of G — and answers it by A, and not by B. The 
last two notes of the subject, of course, admit of only one 
answer. 

125. After our full analysis of this example, few words will be 
needed in explanation of the following, which illustrate the same 
point — 

. \ a Handel. ' Israel in Egypt.' 



i 



p r r 1 r nr r I r r 



m 



IS 



s 1 r * 



r 1 r r r 1 r r «f 



32: 



w 



J S. Bach. Matthaus Passion. 

. -r * * — „ 



At (a) the C in the subject is regarded as sixth of E minor, and 
answered by F; and at (h) G sharp is considered not as the leading 
note of A minor, but as the chromatic major third of the 
dominant, and it is accordingly answered by the major third of 
the tonic. 

126. The reason why the tonal change Ts made as early as 
oossible is because in this way a closer general resemblance of the 



Chap. I V.J 



The Answer. 



53 



answer to the subject is obtained than \i the modulation be 
regarded as taking place later. Sometimes, however, the form of 
the subject does not admit of an early change — 

J. S. Bach. Toccata and Fugue for Organ, In C. 



( 


S" 1 .J J J J J*3 • ■- - 


p, , |V 




f ' tf"| j j 1 ^- 


1 — f* 1*1 






J 


(a) 










_J*JJ s-^-J- 




i*f rr i* 1 ! 


*i»- 


1 


ni n #'•.„.« 


m 








l*» , ¥ 


'LeLI UJ ' 




The first notes of this subject were spoken of in § 93. It is 
impossible here to regard the modulation as taking place till after 
the subdominant harmony at (a). The length and variety of this 
subject render it a very suitable illustration of the rules we gave 
in § T22. The student will here see nearly every note of the 
scale of C in both its relations ; we have even at (b) the rare case 
of the subdominant considered as the minor seventh of the 
dominant. 

127. It is very important to be able to tell when answering a 
subject that modulates, in which of its two possible aspects any 
note is to be regarded. The only notes with which any difficulty 
is likely to be found are the third and the seventh of the tonic, 
which are also the sixth and third of the dominant. An examina- 
tion of the fugues of the great masters will guide us in laying 
down definite rules for the treatment of both these notes. 

128. As we have to regard every note in its relation to the 
new key as early as possible, the third should be considered as 
the sixth of the dominant, and answered by the sixth of the tonic, 
as in our examples to §§ 120, 124, and 125 (a), excepting, 1st, 
when it comes between other notes of the tonic chord, or is 
followed immediately by the tonic; and 2nd, when the subsequent 
appearance of the subdominant in the subject shows that the 
modulation cannot yet have taken place. The following passage 
shows the third in both aspects — 



J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Lobe den Herren, den machtigen Konig. 



flttd 


s 


4» - 






r 




m0~P~mP- 


r* m 










*.0 


m \ mm 


m ^ fm [•", i -j 








;! '1 >5LT ' fa 


pr 1 














A 




-*- 


(*; 


m m * m* 






JBj f. 


s— fc H i— ^— 










V 























The F's in the second bar of the subject prevent our regarding it 
as in the key of G ; but at (a) the change is made at the earliest 



54 



Fugue. 



Chap. rv. 



opportunity. The first E, being the resolution of the F in the 
preceding bar (the chord being the dominant seventh), must of 
course be the third of the tonic, and must be answered by B ; the 
second E is treated as the submediant of G, and answered by the 
submediant of C — viz., A. 

129. We give a few more illustrations of the same point. 



(«) s 



J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Gott ist mein Konig. ' 




Here the second note of the subject is regarded as the sixth of 
the dominant, and all the rest is plain sailing. 



V) S 



Mozart. Mass in F, No. 6. 




Here the presence of the subdominant prevents our regarding 
the subject as being in the dominant key till we reach (a), where 
the third of the scale is treated as sixth of dominant, and answered 
accordingly. There is an i?nplied modulation (§ 118) in the 
subject, for it is very rare to find a subject ending on the leading 
note. It is almost invariably regarded (as here) as the third of the 
dominant key. 



130. In our next example 



Handel. Concerto Grosso in C 
tr 




the change is not made at the earliest possible moment (in the 
first bar), for this would have disfigured the subject too much. 



The mental effect of the music is distinctly that of the key of C, 
till we come to (a) where the double significance of the third of 
the scale is very clearly shown. The 6rst E, being followed by 



Chap. IV.] 



The Answer. 



55 



C, is the third of the tonic, and is answered by the third of the 
dominant ; the second E is not followed by a note of the tonic 
chord, and is therefore regarded as sixth of the dominant. Our 
next example 

(fi\ S J* ^" Bach. Cantata, " Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied. 



**=^ 



Sao 




illustrates a different point. The first F in the third bar cannot 
be regarded as belonging to the dominant key, because of the 
G natural that follows, neither can the second which resolves the 
preceding G ; but the F preceding the G sharp is treated as the 
submediant of A. 

131. The same principles will guide us in dealing with the 
leading note. Let the fundamental principle be thoroughly 
grasped that the tonal change must be made as soon as possible, 
and the whole thing is easy. If a subject modulates, the leading 
note must be always treated as the third of the dominant, and 
answered by third of tonic, except \* T hen it is merely an auxiliary 
note of the tonic to which it at once returns, e.g. — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier Fugue 2. 



(tNFt 




— F^ 




j g| g 


S^-aa" L* La ^ 


, »fo 


9-f&£ ^ 




V S 


■ -g s^j u = 









This subject does not modulate, but it shows the use of the 
leading note as an auxiliary note. 

132. The following examples 



(«)S 



J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in C. 




J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 18. 



/ (3) s -r» f l» 1 




*i» r 






OjtL _ A , 
















Jg3 Jl J fJ^J^^ 


-• 


-m 


] - J- J- *-*- 


-md- 



5<5 



Fugue. 



(c)S 



m^rnr 



m 



l Chap. IV. 
Naumann. ist Mass. 



rrTTir ts 



T=t 



show the leading note very early in the subject treated as the 
third of the dominant, and answered by third of tonic. The 
following notes of the subject are all answered as belonging to 
the dominant key. 

133. So strongly is the leading note felt as the third of the 
dominant that it is not seldom answered by the third of the tonic, 
even when there is no modulation — 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 19. 




Here Bach treats the second and third notes of his subject as 
the third and sixth of E, and answers them by third and sixth of 
A, though the subject ends in the key of the tonic. In our 
next example 

Macfarren. ' The Resurrection.' 
(*) S_ _ .«. 



a» 



wm 



i 



m 



m 



g 



the second bar is treated as containing a modulation to the key 
of E, the leading note being answered by the third of the tonic. 

134. If the subject begin in the dominant, and modulate to 
the tonic, the process will be reversed. We shall now, as soon as 
possible, consider the sixth of the dominant as the third of the 
tonic, and the third of the dominant as the seventh of the tonic, 

g BUXTEHUDE. 




The first half of this subject is in A; in the second bar it 
modulates to D ; and F, the sixth of A, is therefore at once 
regarded as the third of the tonic. 

135. Our next example shows the third of the dominant in 
both its aspects. 



Cha D . I V.J 
S 



1S^ 



^_h^2_ 



The Answer 



57 



KlRNBERGER. 



?=^fc= 



(«) 



i^5* g 



rjTJl^ 7 " 



Let it be noticed that this subject might have been considered as 
in the key of B flat throughout ; it would then have taken a real 
answer. Kirnberger has preferred to regard it as in F until the 
last two bars. The tonal change might have been made after 
the B flat in the fifth bar ; but this would have altered the form 
of the subject needlessly. The point, to illustrate which this 
passage is quoted, is the treatment of the A in the penultimate 
bar. It is first regarded as third of dominant, and answered by 
D, and then looked at as leading note of B flat, and answered 
by E natural. We saw in § 88 how two notes in the subject 
were answered by the same note; here is the converse — the 
same note in the subject has two different notes in the answer. 

136. The answering of one note by two is sometimes to be 
met with in the case of the dominant and supertonic, as in the 
following passage — 

o J. S. Bach. Fugue for Clavier, in A. 




Here the supertonic at (a) is first answered by the supertonic of 
E, and then treated as dominant of E, and answered by dominant 
of A. Evidently had it been so regarded the first time, it would 
have utterly spoilt the answer. 



137. Sometimes the dominant is answered first by tonic and 
then by supertonic, even when there is no modulation. 

^ f \ g Handel. Anthem, " I will magnify thee. 




58 



Fugue. 



TChap iv 



t 58. If a subject begins in the tonic, modulates to dominant, 
and returns to tonic, the answer makes the converse modula- 
tions — from dominant to tonic, and back to dominant. No new 
principles are involved here ; two examples will be sufficient. 

i \ g J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Sehet, welch eine Liebe. 




<« s 



jll j J 1 j h is 1 r 



E. Prout. 2nd Organ Concerto. 



l^^i^H \ 1 1 1 j ^ ^n^^ 




139. In general, any leaps of a dissonant interval, such as a 
seventh, especially of an augmented or diminished interval, 
should be reproduced exactly in a tonal answer. The student 
will find illustrations of this in several of the examples already 
given. At § 93 (c) and § 126 will be seen a diminished fifth; 
at § 125 (b) a diminished fourth; and at § 132 {b) an augmented 
fourth, all of which are retained in the answers. We add one 
example of a diminished seventh — 



J. S. Bach. 



Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 44. 

f 




This subject also contains a diminished fifth which is retained in 
the answer. 



Chan. IV.] 



The Answer. 



59 



140. There is, however, one important exception to the rule 
just given. When one of the two notes forming the dissonant 
interval is the tonic or dominant, and the modulation is made at 
that point (sometimes even when no modulation is made), a leap 
of a dissonant interval in the subject will often become a leap of 
a consonance in the answer, and vice versa. We give some 
examples — 



(a) 



KlRNBERGER. 



SLdfe 



m 



&c. 



m 



^m 



±m 



^ 



321 



Here both the B and A of the subject are answered by E, on 
the principle explained in § 88. Our next example shows the 
converse case — an octave in the subject becoming a seventh in 
the answer — 



/ fljflg s d 


~ 1* — P i> J - 




g ! 


r** — r~F~f — 


-CUTS BE 


{GER. 


) n\ & A 




(«)_ 








i^fe=g 




gJ 











Here there is an implied modulation, and the change to the 
dominant key is assumed as early as possible (§ 121). Obviously 
it cannot be before the third bar at (a). The first G is treated as 
third of tonic, and the second as sixth of dominant (§ 128). 

141. In our example (a) of § no, we see a seventh in the 
subject becoming a sixth in the answer. The following interest- 
ing passage illustrates both the rule and the exception that we art 
now discussing — 



, s . 


»- f r . — L 


, * *f -f t* f bF 


KlRNBERGER. 

rV b r r- 1 ^ 


A 


• — (• — • — r~bi 


. r *r if-ij^-PTp- 




Mh£*3 r 1 


— 1 — 1 — 1 J H [ 




1 'i i y ^^ 



The tonal change at the beginning of the answer alters the 
seventh into a sixth, but the claims of the tonal answer having 
been satisfied in the first bar, the augmented and diminished 
intervals in the second and third bars are exactly imitated. 



6o 



Fugue. 



[Cbap. IV 



142. In the following passages we see an augmented fourth in 
the subject becoming a major third in the answer. 



j. S. Bach. Cantata, " Ihr werdet weinen und heulen. 



MR 




J^j^T- ■ r ' 


1 — m — 








, g 


\u* 


A 


-»■ 


~V 


g-gf 


» m m , 


pfca-^ — 




\ " " 

















Notice that here the augmented second and the minor seventh in 
the second bar are retained in the answer, and the change of 
interval comes where the modulation takes place. 



Albrechtsberger. 




This is a similar instance to the last. The form of the melody 
renders it impossible to introduce the modulation earlier. 



(c)S 



Mozart. Mass in C, No. 4. 




This is a curious example, because Mozart by the way he answers 
the subject implies three modulations — to the dominant and back 
in bar 2, and again to the dominant at the end. It would have 
been simpler to treat the first F sharp, which is almost imme- 
diately contradicted, as a chromatic note, and to have given the 
answer the following form — 



which would have been equally correct here (compare § 65). 

143. Our next example shows the converse case, a major 
third in the subject becoming an augmented fourth in the 
answer. 

Albrechtsberger. 

m _#_, m — *— m~ 



Chap. IV. 



The Answer. 



61 



This passage illustrates the partiality of fugue writers for treating 
the third of the tonic as the sixth of the dominant, and the 
leading note as the third of the dominant. There is no necessity 
for a tonal change till (a), and the answer might have been 



j^TTT^Z g ^ I Jfl JS]S J7J^ 



Here we have another example of what we have already seen 
more than once, that it is sometimes possible for a subject to 
have two different answers, both correct. The student will learn 
by experience, in such cases, which is the better. 

144. Though, as a general rule, the transposition of the 
subject a perfect fourth or fifth should be strictly carried out, 
we often find the position of the semitones disregarded, a semi- 
tone being answered by a tone, and a tone by a semitone. This 
is especially the case with the subdominant and leading note, as 
will be seen by the following passages, selected from a much 
larger number we had marked for quotation — 



J. S. Bach. Fughetta on " Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr . 
<*> s 




(*)S 



J. S. Bach. Mass in B minor. 




i <g S ^ Ph*-,-**- 



\ \ II 



r I I 



Mozart. Litany in B flat. 

-m — m-r-t*-* — = — 1-. * — * — P- 



is 



I- I i l : 



t+Sjl-^ 



fee 



g a ! ! ' 3 



62 



Fugue. 



LChap. IV. 



145. On the same principle — the disregard of semitones — 
must be explained the occasional answering of a major by a 
minor third, or a minor by a major, in the course of a subject. 
This must not be confounded with the regularly allowed substitu- 
tion of a major for a minor third, at the end of a subject, spoken 
of in § 69. 

J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in B flat. 




£ 



(c) S 



P. Winter. ' Stabat Mater. 



J j J J|J./J ^ 



3ffi 



£ 



« 



[ P ^-^^^-g 



^^ 






^ 



In all the above passages the alterations in the answer are 
marked with an asterisk. Students are advised not to imitate 
such freedoms as these, but in all cases to preserve the position 
of the semitones, except, of course, at the moment of modulation. 

146. Before leaving the subject of tonal answers, it must be 
added that we occasionally (we might also say exceptionally) find 
the dominant key answered by the supertonic, instead of by the 
tonic. Sometimes this is in an incidental modulation, as in the 
following passage — 

Handel. Dettingen Anthem. 



N.B. 



&c. 



f 



*<i 1 r r 



*t 



J U ]- 



^5= 



s 



Here the answer at the "N.B." is, to say the least of it, unusual. 
The subject appears to commence in the dominant, and to 
modulate into the tonic ; and the regular answer would certainly 
have been 



Chap. IV.] 



The Answer. 



*1 



147. Sometimes, though very seldom, we find a fatal modula- 
tion to the dominant answered by one to the supertonic, as in 
the example (/) of § 107, where, however, Mendelssohn har- 
monizes the last notes of the answer in F ?ninor, instead of F 
major, so as not to leave the circle of nearly related keys. In the 
following passage there is a distinct modulation to A major in the 
answer — 

c, Leo. " Dixit Dominus." 



fEjte s 


— ■=— 


p 


F=^ 


— f 5 * — 1 — f 5 * — tT^ — 


— <s> — 


A 


!=#= 

p 


.-!■ 
— 1 




— 1 f— i 1 

r 1 r if 


=s= l 


\ 


-I 




£=t= 


_J — l_J 1 — 


1 



148. Our last illustration of this point is instructive. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 10. 




Notice, in passing, the minor third at the end of the subject 
answered by a major third (§ 69). We see here the only example 
in all Bach's works of a real answer given to a subject that 
closes in the key of the dominant ; but here it can be not only 
explained but justified. We have already spoken (§ 139) of the 
importance of retaining augmented and diminished intervals as 
far as possible in the answer. Had Bach given a tonal answer 
here, 




he would have had to sacrifice the diminished fifth in the second 
bar, and the harmonic framework of the bar would have been 
entirely changed. But there is a further reason here. We said, 
in § 116, that a tonal answer was required when the subject 
modulated to the dominant, in order to get back to the tonic 
for the entry of the third voice. But the fugue we are now 
discussing is for two parts only ; and after the first entry of the 
answer, the exposition (§ 11) is complete, and we reach the first 
episode, where, as we shall see later, modulation usually begins. 
There is, therefore, here no occasion to return to the tonic key. 
The same reason may probably explain the putting the second 
answer into the key of the subdominant, noticed in § in. 
Students should always keep to the regular rule, and answer a 
subject modulating to the dominant by a return to the tonic. 



64 



Fugue. 



[Chap. IV 



149. Chromatic subjects usually take real answers, unless 
there be a modulation expressed or implied. 



J. S. Bach. Toccata in F sharp minor. 




%* tH 



gjj*g t_ r i»«n? J m^T^ 



/m a J» S. Bach. Fugue for Clavier, in E flat. 
WS # H- b- , ^-^_ m 



A - ff *- ^m- 



m^ 



*=t 



ws 



Mozart. Mass in C minor. 



i 1 g j j b jLj-j a j jj 1 j. g ^ j 



g^jjj,; W 



x=± 



=6* 



J 1 J I 1 J 



At (£) the leap of a fifth is answered tonally, but the chromatic 
passage itself is exactly repeated. The answer is in the sub- 
dominant (§ 71.) At (c) other notes occur between the chromatic 
notes. 

150. Sometimes a composer has chosen to consider a modula- 
tion implied where there is no real necessity for it. 



Mozart. Quartett in D minor, No. 13. 




Here a real answer, as at § 149 (a), would have been much more 
usual, and (with all respect to Mozart, be it said) much better. 
The threefold repetition of D spoils the form of the answer. 

151. If there be a modulation before the chromatic notes 
are introduced, such notes must be considered as belonging to 
the new key, and answered accordingly — 

Handel. 'Jephtha,' 




Chap. IV.] 



I^he Answer. 



65 



KlRNBERGER. 



j| J I J I 1 J flTJ-iphn>TJ~l=a 



152. Fugue subjects are sometimes answered by inversion. 
In this case the answer is not generally in the key of the 
dominant; but that species of inversion is used in which 
dominant is answered by tonic, and tonic by dominant (Doubk 
Counterpoint^ §§ 281, 282). Sometimes the answer by inversion ifc 
given in the first exposition, as in Bach's ' Art of Fugue,' No. 5 — 

J. S. Bach. Art of Fugue, No. 5. 
4- 




More frequently, however, this device is reserved for the .ater 
developments of the fugue, in order to heighten the interest, 
as in Nos. 15, 20, and 46, of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' 
An answer by inversion is much more common with a minor 
subject than with a major. 

153. We also sometimes find answers by augmentation and 
diminution. In these again there is no need that the answer 
should be in the dominant key. The object of putting the 
answer in the dominant is to prevent its being a mere monotonous 
repetition of the subject ; and this end is sufficiently attained 
either by inversion or by altering the lengths of the notes. In 
Nos. 6 and 7 of the ' Art of Fugue ' will be seen examples, too 
long to quote here, of answers by augmentation and diminution. 

154. Sometimes, especially in vocal fugues, in order to keep 
the answer in a more convenient compass, the change of an 
octave in pitch is made in the course of the answer, as in the 
following passage — 

Schumann. Requiem. 




A similar example, which is familiar to everybody, will be found 
in the "Amen" chorus of the 'Messiah' 



6f 



Fugue. 



[Chap. IV. 



155. It is often said that there are no rules without excep 
tions; and in the works of all the great masters we occasionally 
find fugue answers which cannot be explained on any of the 
principles laid down in this chapter. As our last illustrations, we 
give one specimen by each of the greatest composers, of an 
irregular fugue answer. If the student has mastered the contents 
of this chapter, no notes will be needed ; he will see at once 
wherein the irregularity consists. 



(«>s 



J. S. Bach. Fugue for Clavier, in A minor. 




<*) S 



Handel. ' Choice of Hercules.' 
Key : C minor. 




ws 



Beethoven. Mass in C 



H J r r 1 r • r i r \ \ tr i^= 



ffzrzr=3: 



f A/)S 



Weber. Mass in E flat. 



The Answer. 



t>7 



Mendelssohn. Fugue in E minor. 




j( U /I* p M "iT* 


Schumann. 


Fugue, Op. 72, No. 2. 


A V " 

/fib dt z — i ^ ** £ .f 


J_J — J C — J J^J 


-— j p =5— 1 — F f» - 


IS ^L-* 


— 1 ' 1 ^dnijj 






The only remarks required by these examples are that (£) has 
an independent orchestral accompaniment, the harmony clearly 
proving — what does not appear from the quotation itself — that 
the subject ends in C minor, and the answer in F major ; and 
that (ti) may possibly be considered an extreme instance of the 
disregard of semitones spoken of in §§ 144, 145. 

156. We have now arrived at the end of a very long and 
difficult task — that of explaining the principles of fugal answer. 
The rules here given differ widely in some respects from those 
generally laid down ; but not one new rule has been advanced 
which we have not justified by the example of the greatest 
composers. We shall now, by way of summary, endeavour to 
put the general principles into the fewest possible words. 

I. The answer to a subject which is in the key of the tonic 
should be as a rule in the key of the dominant ; but if dominant 
harmony is prominent in the subject, the answer may occasionally 
be in the subdominant. 

II. A real answer is possible for any subject which begins and 
ends in the key of the tonic without modulating to the dominant ; 
but if the subject begins with a leap between tonic and dominant 
or commences on the dominant, a tonal answer is mostly 
preferable. 

III. If the subject modulate between the keys of the tonic 
and dominant, the answer should make the converse modulations 
between dominant and tonic. 

IV. A modulation should always be made as early as 
possible. In a modulation from tonic to dominant consider the 



68 



Fugue. 



[Chap, nr 



third and seventh of the tonic as sixth and third of dominant as 
soon as the modulation can be considered as having taken place, 
and answer them accordingly. 

157. These few sentences embody all the fundamental 
principles of a fugal answer ; the less important details have 
been dealt with in this and the preceding chapter. The student 
who has thoroughly understood the rules here given will have but 
little difficulty in answering any fugue subject that may be set 
him, unless (as is sometimes the case in examinations) a bad and 
unsuitable subject is given as a " catch." In such cases, he must 
trust to his luck ; we have seen subjects in examination papers to 
which a good answer was absolutely impossible. 

158. We conclude this chapter with giving a number of 
fugue subjects, original and selected, for the student to answer. 
We also, as a useful exercise, give a few answers to which he is to 
find the subjects. This will of course be the converse process. 
If the answer ends in the key of the tonic, the subject must 
have ended in the key of the dominant, and vice versa ; if the 
answer begins with the dominant, the subject most probably 
began with the tonic. First ascertain in what key the answer 
ends, and if there has been a modulation, make that modulation 
as early as possible in the subject. The rules for the treatment 
of the third and seventh of the tonic (§§ 128-133) will be of 
considerable assistance in this matter. 



Exercises. 
(1.) Find the answers to the following subjects — 



.(in.) 



f^m 



sm 



m 



m mf \ mlfJ ^H 



m 



(IV.) 




i 



(VI.) 
£9 



iHH 



w=^ 



(VII.) 

I> — B 



r »r 



W=m 



warn 



-m£-m- 



ES 



*a=F 




(X.) 



(XI.) 

It 



(f^JMeH-g^ f^t tiL qr[\ Jm 



(XII.) 



(XIII.) 



'fr-j- J -F-Rj J g r iT^Mf i J J r*r^ g 



(XIV.) * 

4 



b r 



s E ffr+r-g 



■J-l ^J -T 



JEiJE 




(XVII.) * 



m 



^^ 



i i 




(XIX.) 



^-^f-r-rf- g r i r r r 



fif c 



r~r~nr 



4— [ 



-i — i — r 



(XX.) 



w&mm 



(XXI.) 



(XXII.) 




* Subjects marked with an asterisk can have more than one correct answer. 



7« 



FlTGUH. 



[(.■hap. IV. 



(XXIV.) 




(XXVI.) 

i 



m& 



m,r* \ .rr 



L^l^-j JJ l[j' l r i i£r 



(XXVII.) 



"- J I J i j J JTjI j i j ' ttJ j 



(XXVIII.) * 

4 



(XIX.) * 




(2.) Find the subjects of which the following are the 
answers — 




(I 

-prr 


II.) 

1 — H 




j — t 


k- 














/r 






(I 


v -> p 


v * 






r— trg : ± 

■ * ff r — 


]•■ *^ 














(V.) 






(VI.) 












(VII.) 




'-3 s^ 






























bJ 








— sJ — ' 







The Answer. 







»"-JJJ a JJNJ a J^B 



(XI.) 



(XII.) 



Note. — The greater part of these answers are taken from 
fugues by Bach. All the more elaborate and difficult ones are 
from his works ; and the trouble involved in finding the proper 
subjects will be well repaid. 



7 2 



Fugue. 



[Chap, v 



CHAPTER V. 



THE COUNTERSUBJECT. 



159. In our first chapter (§ 10), we defined a Countersubject 
as " a counterpoint which accompanies answer or subject 
systematically, though not of necessity invariably." We have 
now to consider the essentials of a good countersubject, and 
to endeavour to show when its introduction into a fugue is 
advisable. 

160. The first and most important requisite for a counter- 
subject is, that as it has to accompany either the subject or the 
answer in whatever part these may appear, it must be written in 
double counterpoint with the answer, as an accompaniment to 
which it is first heard. The double counterpoint is, in by far 
the largest number of cases, in the octave, but it is also sometimes 
in the tenth or twelfth. Sometimes a countersubject which has 
been used in the octave at first is subsequently employed in one 
of the other intervals. In Double Counterpoint will be seen in 
§ 163 an example of a countersubject used both in the octave 
and in the tenth j and at § 175 of the same book a similar 
instance of the octave and the twelfth. 

161. A most important point in writing a countersubject is 
individuality of melodic character, and contrast of rhythm as 
compared with the subject (Double Counterpoint, § 129). This 
will be best illustrated by examples, which we shall mostly take 
from Bach's ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier,' as being a work accessible 
to everybody. 



162. In our first examples 



&& 

yw r 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 2. 



' J/'jb 


- — ?*f-f p fe g Mgj 


, m 


$0 fJ 






Q.b 


cs 








— -4- J — F= ->. H — ' — 1 




^ H •'•fj^, ■"- *J 






■ tt* 1 w 


* L ^-h« 



Chap. V.] 



ffcft^ 



The Counters ubject. 73 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 37. 



$Szp= 



gfT r f fT^ 



gyyur 





the countersubject (CS.) is mostly in longer notes than the 
subject, though at the beginning of (a) contrast is secured by 
accompanying the quavers of the subject by semiquavers. Let 
the student play the countersubjects by themselves, and notice 
how different they are from the subjects, and at the same time 
how thoroughly suited to them in character. 

163. Our next illustration shows the opposite case — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 44. 
A 




$ 



**■ 



e 



f f r r r»r r r r r m 

■'Mii—>niiiLi-m '— ■ U. 



jCOtCT 



Here the countersubject does not enter with the first note of the 
answer ; but between it and the subject are a few notes of codetta 
(§ 62). This often happens ; sometimes, as will be seen presently, 
only a part of the subject or answer is accompanied by the 
countersubject. In the above passage we see a subject in long 
notes accompanied by a countersubject of very short notes. 

164. On its first appearance, in company with the answer, the 
countersubject should be in the same key as the answer. In 
the example last given the answer is in E minor, and the counter- 
subject is no less distinctly in the same key. Sometimes, however, 
as in our example to § 67, the key of the answer is not clearly 
defined by the counterpoint until nearly the close. 



74 



Fugue. 



[Chap. v. 



165. It was said in the last chapter (§ 115) that the third 
voice in a fugue almost invariably entered with the subject. In 
the very common case in which the subject is in the key of the 
tonic throughout, the answer will be in the key of the dominant. 
In order to return speedily to the tonic key, and to allow the 
third voice to enter at once, we often find in such cases that at 
the end of the countersubject the leading note of the dominant 
key is flattened, becoming the subdominant of the tonic key. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 33. 




Here the subject ends in E ; the answer and countersubject are 
in B. To enable the third voice to enter immediately, a return is 
made to the key of E at the end of the third bar, by contradicting 
the A sharp. Where this is not done, it is mostly necessary (as 
will be seen in the next chapter) to introduce a codetta before the 
entry of the third voice. The evasion of a full cadence in 
the dominant key by the device just explained is frequently called 
by its Italian name, inganno, i.e., "deception" — a deceptive 
cadence. 

166. Sometimes the countersubject is constructed of material 
suggested by the subject itself, as in the following passage. 



J. S. Bach. 



Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 18. 
A 




(y J * j * _j _j j j 



Here the figure of the subject W^f^ 1 furnishes the chief idea 
for the countersubject. More frequently, howevei, the counter- 



Chap V. 



The Countersubject. 



75 



subject contains an entirely fresh idea, as in the examples 
previously quoted. 

167. It is in general desirable that the countersubject should 
contain some distinct melodic or rhythmic idea, which may be 
used later for codetta or episode. A particularly fine example of 
this will be seen in the twelfth fugue of the 'Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier.' 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 12. 




Notice here the strongly marked contrast between the subject and 
the countersubject. This fugue contains altogether six episodes 
(bars 16-19, 22-27, 3°"34, 37-4°, 43"47> and 5°~53)» a11 of 
which are founded on the first six notes of the countersubject — 

1 68. Not infrequently the countersubject accompanies only a 
part, and not the whole of the subject or answer. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 34. 




^EE 




7 6 



Fugue. 



[Chap, v 




That the countersubject has only the limited extent nere marked 
for it, is proved by the fact that the rest of the counterpoint does 
not systematically reappear later in the fugue as an accompaniment 
to the subject or answer (see § 298, where the whole fugue is 
given in score and analyzed). 

169. In tonal fugues that modulate to the dominant, the entry 
of the countersubject is often deferred till after the modulation 
has taken place. This allows the countersubject to appear without 
alteration against either subject or answer. 



Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 24. 




ttf&F 


— =r-^ — 1 


*=* 




9-*- 


ZSZ 


-m 


1 

— (S> 


P 


"t* r 




fg TJJb 






! fj* 1 


-1 


@*F 


■fLf^ 


* 


-f 








J 



This subject is quoted in some text-books as a particularly 
difficult one to answer. There is, however, no real difficulty 
here, if we remember our rule (§ 121), that the modulation must 
be regarded as taking place as soon as possible. Here it cannot 
be till after the fourth quaver, because G natural does not belong 
to the scale of F sharp minor \ but from the fifth note of the 
subject all is regarded in its relation to F sharp minor, and 
answered exactly by the corresponding notes in relation to 
B minor, and the whole countersubject is distinctly in the latter 
key. Notice the curious, and doubtless accidental, resemblance 
of this countersubject to that of the fugue in E minor, quoted in 
§ 168. 



Chap. V. 



The Countersubject. 



11 



170. If, on the other hand, the countersubject begins before 
the modulation has taken place, it will often need modification 
similar to that of a tonal answer, according to whether it is 
accompanying the subject or the answer. 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 7. 






CS 










~v 


^ -<•- ^ 


■ 1 


/ _J 




T' i* 




-i»- «• 




/ 1 D 




— ft 


9 m _,, 


g m r — 


1 f f r j i r j L | 




A- 


























1 — p55=i 1 g—fl 


V t 




1 J .«[ * 








*7j. ' 










At (#) the countersubject accompanies the answer; at (b) it 
accompanies the subject itself, and the third from C to E becomes 
a second from A to G. This is because the third in the answer, 
between F and D, was only a second (between B and A natural) 
in the subject. The change in the countersubject must be made, 
like that in the answer, at the point of modulation. Sometimes, 
also the countersubject is somewhat altered, even with a real 
answer, as in the fugue in E, referred to in § 165 (see the extract 
given later in § 269). 

171. It may be as well to remind students that, as the 
countersubject is first heard against the answer only, it must not 
make with the answer any intervals which would not be allowed 
in free two-part counterpoint. The laws regulating the employ- 
ment of these intervals will be found in Double Counterpoint, 
Chapter V. 

172. Though, as a general rule, the countersubject makes its 
first appearance as an accompaniment to the answer in the 
exposition, we not infrequently meet with fugues in which its first 
appearance is deferred. The great fugue in C sharp minor 
(No. 4 of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier ') is an example of this 
kind. We have already quoted the subject and answer in § 66. 
The counterpoint against the answer seen in that example 
accompanies also the entry of the third voice, but not those of the 



7« 



Fugue. 



[Chap. v. 



fourth and fifth, nor is it subsequently used at all. We cannot 
therefore consider it a countersubject. But at the 35th bar 
a genuine countersubject makes its appearance 



ia) cs 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 4. 




This countersubject accompanies every subsequent entry of 
the subject till the coda of the fugue. At the 49th bar a second 
countersubject is introduced — 



i 



fcS 



(*)S 



m 



:*?=£ 



3=£§ 



P 



CS2. 



' i j j 1 j ,^ 



Both countersubjects are worked together with the subject in 
triple counterpoint. Another fine example of two countersubjects 
introduced late in the fugue will be found in the 38th fugue (in 
F sharp minor) of the same work. 

173. A remarkable example of a fugue with two regular 
countersubjects, both of which appear in the first exposition, 
is seen in No. 21 of the 'Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' We quote 
the commencement of the fugue, writing it in open score, that the 
separate parts may be more clearly followed — 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 21 




ffiS 



Kt 



m 



^ r^ 


^pff |" 


| Codetta. 


cs 1. 


T«rjr-k 




A 


■ Bt«* f ^» — T- \ 


fcBrb 




— 5 r r r 


Lrl^^^ 


s^-b 






1 1 



Chap. V.l 



The Countersubject. 



70 



-< r> i cs2.- 

p gp r r r r I gp r r g r 1 \ \ * gpl 



CSl. 




Here the first countersubject accompanies the answer ; when the 
third voice enters with the subject, the alto, which has just 
completed the answer, takes up the first countersubject, while the 
treble continues with a second countersubject. Every subsequent 
entry of the subject or answer down to the end of the fugue is 
accompanied by both the countersubjects. 

174. A different method of employing two countersubjects 
will be seen in the 47th fugue (in B major) of the same work. 
The first appearance of the answer is accompanied by a counter- 
subject. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 47. 




(#**F 


^ 






1 1 


-fp 1 


— 1 


P ft 8 B- 




=* 




^ 


L 




gg sgi a 


— p 


=f= 


-r-p- 


Bpf= 


^-fTi 


p^ 


\iy..j.jii 


-&- 




■^ 


1 U 







This is regularly introduced against subject and answer throughout 
the whole of the exposition, after which it is heard no more. Its 
place is taken on the next entry of the subject by an entirely new 
countersubject, written in double counterpoint in the twelfth, and 
invariably inverted in that interval. We gave it as an illustration 
of this species of counterpoint in § 171 of Double Counterpoint, 
to which the student is referred. It is very rare to find two 
different countersubjects used, not simultaneously, but as here, 
successively. 



8o Fugue. tchap. v 

175. Some theorists speak of a fugue with a regular counter- 
subject as u a fugue with two subjects," or "a double fugue." It 
is best, however, not to apply this name to fugues such as those 
we have been speaking of, unless the countersubject, as is 
sometimes the case, does not appear in the first exposition, but 
has later an independent exposition of its own, and is not at first 
used as an accompaniment to the subject, with which it is not 
combined till its own separate exposition is completed. We shall 
treat of fugues of this kind, as well as of the other variety of 
double fugue, in which the second subject first appears not 
against the answer (as in the examples here given), but against 
the first subject, later in this volume (Chapter XL). 

176. It is by no means necessary that every fugue should 
have a regular countersubject. Of the forty-eight fugues in the 
' Wohltemperirtes Clavier ' there are seventeen which have none ; 
and the question naturally arises, When it is desirable to write a 
countersubject to a fugue, and when can it be suitably dispensed 
with ? It is impossible to lay down a hard and fast rule on the 
matter ; but a careful examination of those fugues which have no 
countersubject shows that, in a large majority of cases, it is 
unnecessary, if the subject is intended to be elaborately combined 
with itself. The exact meaning of this will be better understood 
when we come to speak of the middle section of a fugue, and of 
stretto ; but one or two illustrations will help to make the matter 
clearer. In fugues Nos. 1, 22, 26, 29, and 31, we find no 
countersubject, because the subject itself is so largely treated in 
stretto (§ 16) that a countersubject would only have been in the 
way. In fugues 8 and 20, the subject is treated by inversion and 
in canon, and in No. 27 extensive use is made of inversion 
and diminution. On the whole it may be said that, when there 
is no countersubject, we mostly find the more scientific devices of 
fugue writing applied to the subject itself. This, however, must 
rot be taken for more than an attempt at generalization. There 
is no form of composition in which there is so much liberty of 
treatment and variety of detail as that of fugue. 

177. The student should now compose countersubjects to all 
the fugue subjects given at the end of Chapter IV. He should 
try to write at least two or three, differing in character, to each 
subject. For this purpose he should write the subject on one 
staff, following it on a second by the answer, above or below 
which, according to its position, he should write his countersubject 
as the continuation of the subject. He may always introduce a 
short codetta, if necessary, between the end of the subject and the 
beginning of the countersubject, but it is best not to leave a rest 
between the two. The first voice should go on continuously to 
the end of the countersubject.* 

* We occasionally find exceptions to this sound general principle, e.g. , in Nos. 
16 and 30 of the ' Forty-Eight ' in both of which the entry of the countersubject 
is preceded by a rest, probably to cali attention to it more strongly. We shall see 
later that a rest is generally advisable before the re-entry of the subject. 



Chap, vi] The Exposition. 8, 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE EXPOSITION AND COUNTER-EXPOSITION. 

178. If the student clearly understands how to answer a fugue 
subject, and how to write a good countersubject against the 
answer, he will be ready to commence the next stage of his 
work — the composition of a complete exposition of a fugue. By 
the exposition, as mentioned in Chapter I. (§ 11), is meant that 
part of the fugue during which the voices make their first entries in 
succession, and which extends as far as the conclusion of the 
subject or answer (as the case may be) by the voice that enters 
last. If the student has mastered the preceding chapters of this 
volume, and has had sufficient practice in counterpoint to be able 
to add free parts to two parts that are in double counterpoint with 
one another (Double Counterpoint, Chapter VII.), he will find 
that the tasks now before him will offer him but little difficulty. 

179. The first question to be considered is the order in which 
the different voices should enter in the exposition. The subject 
may in the first instance be announced by any voice, but the 
order of the subsequent entries will largely depend upon what 
voice has led. 

180. In order to understand this clearly, it is needful to bear 
in mind the fact that the answer should always be at a distance 
of a fourth or fifth above or below the subject. It is also 
necessary to remember that the compass of the alto voice is about 
a fourth below that of the treble; that the tenor is an octave 
below the treble, and the bass an octave below the alto. We are 
speaking here of vocal music ; but the parts in an instrumental 
fugue are mostly treated pretty much as if they were voice parts. 
For the purposes of fugal answer, we group the voices in pairs, 
the higher pair being the treble and tenor, and the lower the alto 
and bass. If the student remembers the directions for transposing 
a given subject which are given in Counterpoint, § 53, he will be 
aware that a subject given in the treble must be transposed 
a fourth or fifth low/er for the alto, an octave lower for the tenor, 
and an eleventh or twelfth lower for the bass. 

181. If we apply this principle to the matter now undei 
consideration, we shall see that a subject announced by one 
of the higher pair of voices should be answered by one of 
the lower pair, and vice versa. This is the usual practice of fugue 



82 Fugue. iChap. n 

writers, though occasional exceptions, with which we need not 
now concern ourselves, are to be met with. 

182. Our next question is, By which voice of the other pair 
(supposing the fugue to be for four voices) should the answer be 
given ? If, for instance, the treble leads with the subject, should 
the alto or the bass have the answer ? It is seldom difficult to 
decide this point, if we remember that it is generally best, for the 
last entry in the exposition to be in an outer, rather than in a 
middle voice. The reason for this is that it is easier to distinguish 
the subject or answer when it is in an outer part, especially 
in fugues with four or five voices. In three-part fugues, owing to 
the thinner harmony, an entry in a middle part can be more 
clearly heard. In the forty-eight fugues of Bach's ' Wohltemperif tes 
Clavier,' the last entry is in an outer part in no fewer than forty- 
two — seven out of every eight. 

183. In a two-part fugue, the exposition will be a very simple 
matter. One of the voices (it is indifferent which) leads with the 
subject; the other follows with the answer, which the leading 
voice accompanies with the counterpoint or countersubject, as the 
case may be, and the exposition is complete. 

184. In a three-part fugue, the operation is somewhat longer. 
If one of the outer parts has the subject, the middle part usually 
has the answer, and the remaining outer part has the subject 
again. If the middle part commences, the answer may be 
equally well in either of the outer parts — it is quite immaterial 
which. Occasionally we find one outer part leading, and the other 
outer part following, the middle voice being the last to enter. 
This, however, is rare ; out of twenty-six three-part fugues in the 
' Wohltemperirtes Clavier' there are only two (Nos. 27 and 28) 
in which this method is adopted. 

185. While the second entering voice gives the answer, the 
first continues with the countersubject, supposing there to be 
one ; on the entry of the third voice with the subject, the second 
voice, which has just concluded the answer, continues with 
the countersubject, as the first voice did before. The counter- 
subject, which previously accompanied the answer, must now 
be transposed a fourth or a fifth to serve as a counterpoint 
to the subject. It may also, in the case of a tonal fugue 
require some modification (§ 170). Meanwhile, the leading 
voice, having now completed the countersubject, adds a fresh 
counterpoint, which may also be a second countersubject 
in this case the subject and the two countersubjects must be 
written in triple counterpoint. If the third part be a free part (as 
is mostly the case), triple counterpoint is not necessary. 

186. Here the exposition of a three-part fugue may end; but, 
for a reason now to be shown, it is often continued a little 
further. It was said in the last chapter (§ 160) that a counter- 
subject should be written in double counterpoint to the subject, 
so as to be able to be used both above and below it. But 



Chap. VI.] 



The Exposition. 



«3 



whenever a subject is announced by an outer part, and the other 
voices enter in regular ascending or descending order, a moment's 
thought will show the student that the countersubject, if given (as 
is best) to the voice which has just completed the subject 
or answer, will always occupy the same relative position to the 
subject or answer. If the treble leads, the countersubject will 
always be above \ and if the bass leads, it will always be below. 
In such cases, in order to show the countersubject during the 
exposition in both its aspects, as an upper and lower counterpoint, 
we frequently find one additional entry of subject or answer by 
the voice that flist led, while the last entering voice has the 
countersubject. If the middle voice leads, it is evident that we 
shall have the countersubject in both positions without this 
additional entry, as it will be below the upper part and above the 
lower one. In such a case, as also when there is no regular 
countersubject, the additional entry is not needed. What has 
been said in this paragraph applies equally, under the same 
circumstances, to fugues with more than three voices. 

187. To illustrate the matter now under notice, look at the 
example given in § 173. Here is an exposition of a three-part 
fugue, which, as it stands, might be considered quite complete. 
Before proceeding, however, to the first episode (see Chapter 
VII.) Bach introduces the answer in the treble (the voice which 
first led) in order to. let the first countersubject (which has 
hitherto only been heard above the subject) appear below it in 
the bass — the voice which has just finished the subject. 

188. Very frequently in the exposition of a fugue we meet 
with a codetta (§62) either before the first entry of the answer, 
or between the answer and the second entry of the subject. We 
must now show when such a codetta is expedient, and when it is 
necessary. 

189. Before the first entry of the answer a codetta will be 
necessary in the following cases. First, if the subject begin on 
the tonic with an accented note (e.g., on the first beat of a bar), 
and also end on the tonic, and the answer be below, it is clear 
that, as the answer will begin on the dominant, this note being a 
fourth below the tonic, cannot be sounded as a harmony note 
against it in two-part counterpoint. 

(*)S- 




Here it would be very bad to introduce the answer against the 
last note of the subject; it will be necessary to add a short 
codetta, 

(6) S ; — ; 1 Codetta. 




thus deferring the entry of the answer till the following b? 



8 4 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VI 



190. Another case in which a codetta is needed before the 
answer enters, is when the subject begins on an unaccented note 
near the end of a bar, and ends on an accented note at the begin- 
ning of a bar. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 36. 
"1 Codetta. 




191. A codetta is also sometimes introduced before the answer 
to avoid the collision of tonic and dominant harmony. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 7. 

Z2 




Here the implied harmony of the first half of the second bar is 
clearly that of a full cadence in the dominant. If we introduce 
the answer on the last note of the subject 



j'"^i - r ' n \^ 



&c. 



the effect, as everyone will feel, is simply atrocious. 

192. We much more frequently find a codetta between the 
answer and the second entry of the subject. The reason in many 
cases is the same as that spoken of in our last paragraph — to 
avoid the collision of tonic and dominant harmony. If the subject 
begins and ends with a note of the tonic chord, such a codetta 
will mostly be desirable. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 8. 




The student will see at once that if the third voice enters here on 
the last note of the answer, there will be the same unpleasant 
effect as in example (b) of our last paragraph. Bach therefore 
inserts two bars of codetta before the entry of the next voice. 

193. If the subject begins with the tonic and ends on the 
third or fifth of the tonic, a codetta is generally necessary, as the 



Chap. VI.) 



The Exposition. 



85 



last note of the answer will be the third or fifth of the dominant, 
against both of which the tonic is a dissonance. 

J. S. Each. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 22. 




J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 17. 

1 




In both these examples the answer ends with the tonic chord of 
the dominant key ; and of this chord the original tonic forms no 
part. 

194. We will now write an exposition of a fugue in three 
parts, taking a very simple and straightforward subject, and 
adding a regular countersubject. 




m 



r r ->JlLrr ^^ 



at 



tar 



<f A "; T~ 

rfcfy— j.. ..«, — ft * 


r^ ^~ 


§2 * L 1 ^_ 


11 — i r — — 




^:tf rf — f — r*»-T 


1 »s*r » — r — 


* Si 


-^ ^ 



&c 



We have begun with the upper voice, to let all the parts enter in 
regular descending order. Notice first how bv means of 



86 Fugue. [Chap. vi. 

syncopations, we have carefully contrasted the countersubject 
with the subject. At (a) will be seen the interval of a perfect 
fifth between the two voices. This is generally forbidden in two- 
part double counterpoint ; it is possible here because its inversion, 
the perfect fourth (see (c) in the seventh bar), can be used as an 
accented auxiliary note. 

195. We have considered the subject as ending on D, in the 
second bar. This necessitates a codetta (§ 189), which is 
imitated by each of the following voices. This is a case of very 
common occurrence. It would have been possible here to 
consider the subject as extending to the beginning of the third 
bar. In this case, the answer would have been tonal ; we regard 
the subject as ending on the tonic, so as to illustrate the employ- 
ment of the codetta. 

196. On the entry of the bass with the subject, the alto, which 
had the answer, takes the countersubject, and the counterpoint of 
the treble is free. Little difficulty will be experienced in adding 
the free parts to the subject and countersubject by any student 
who has mastered Chapter VII. of Double Counterpoint. 

197. The exposition might end at (b) \ but we have introduced 
the additional entry spoken of in § 186, to show the counter- 
subject below as well as above the subject. This entry is made 
by the voice that began ; but as this is a three-part fugue, it will be 
seen that the treble, which before had the subject, now has the 
answer. Notice also at (b) the rest before the entry in the treble. 
It is generally advisable, though not absolutely necessary, to let a 
rest precede the re-entry of the subject or answer. 

198. The student should now take the subjects given at the 
end of Chapter IV., and write expositions on them in three parts. 
He will do well to write two or three expositions at least on the 
same subject, with different countersubjects, and altering each 
time the order of entry of the voices. He will be surprised to find 
how much variety he can obtain by this means in the treatment 
of the same subject. 

199. In the exposition of a four-part fugue much greater 
variety is possible in the order of entry than with only three parts. 
But, for reasons already given (§§ 180-182), only a few of the 
possible twenty-four changes in the order are in actual use. It is 
doubtful whether, except in the cases of the irregular expositions, 
to be noticed later in this chapter, any instance can be found of 
an answer being given by the tenor to a subject announced in the 
treble, or by the alto to a subject announced in the bass. In 
consequence of the difference of pitch between the two pairs of 
voices, the answer should always be given by a voice of the otner 
pair from that to which the voice belonged which had the 
subject. We said above, that it was generally best, especially in 
a four-part fugue, that the last entry be in an outer part. 



Chap, y i.] The Exposition. 87 

Consequently the orders of entry most frequently met with, and 
best, are the following four : — 

1) Treble, Alto, Tenor, Bass. 

'2) Bass, Tenor, Alto, Treble. 

3) Alto, Tenor, Bass, Treble. 

[4) Tenor, Alto, Treble, Bass. 
The following are also possible, and sometimes to be met with, 
but are less good : — 

(1) Treble, Bass, Tenor, Alto. 

(2) Bass, Treble, Alto, Tenor. 

(3) Alto, Treble, Bass, Tenor. 

(4) Tenor, Bass, Treble, Alto. 

200. In general, subject and answer should enter alternately 
throughout the exposition ; and if the student examines the eight 
orders cf entry just given he will see that in every case one pair 
of voices will have the subject, and the other the answer. This 
is by far the most common method, but there are occasional 
exceptions. In the 41st fugue of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier' 
the order of entry is Alto, Treble, Tenor, Bass, and the alto and 
tenor have the subject, the treble and bass the answer. Some- 
times also another deviation from the regular practice is met with. 
In the first fugue of the same work, the order of entry is the same 
as that just noted — Alto, Treble, Tenor, Bass ; but here the third 
voice (the tenor) has the answer, and the fourth (the bass) the 
subject. In two other fugues of the same work (Nos. 12 and 14) 
the fourth voice, instead of the answer, has an additional entry of 
the subject. Here, to avoid two immediate entries of the sub- 
ject, the third and fourth entries are separated by a rather long 
codetta. We advise the student in his first attempts to adhere to 
the usual plan, introducing subject and answer alternately, and 
adopting one of the four preferable orders of entry given in the 
last paragraph. 

201. In other respects an exposition for four voices resembles 
one for three, excepting that on the entry of the fourth voice two 
free parts must be added to the subject and countersubject, 
instead of only one. The additional entry spoken of above may 
be used at discretion if an outer part leads. 

202. The exposition of a fugue may end in either the tonic or 
dominant key. If the subject end in the tonic, the answer will 
end in the dominant ; in this case, if the number of voices 
engaged in the fugue be an even number (two, four, &c), the 
exposition will end in the dominant ; if the number be odd (three 
or five), the exposition will end in the tonic. If the subject ends 
in the dominant, the case will be reversed ; with an even number 
of voices the exposition will end in the tonic, and with an odd 
number in the dominant. 

203. Exceptionally, cases are met with in which all the voices 
of a fugue do not take part in the exposition. The 26th fugue of 



88 



Fugue 



fChap. VI. 



the * Wohltemperirtes Clavier* is an instance. The exposition, 
which occupies the first four bars, is for three voices only, and the 
fourth voice does not enter till the 19th bar, when it brings 
in the subject by augmentation, and the last ten bars of the fugue 
are for four voices. A similar example will be seen in Bach's 
Organ Fugue in C major — 



of which the first 48 bars are a four-part fugue, without pedals. 
At the 49th bar the pedals enter with the subject in augmentation 
(as in the case last mentioned), and from this point to the end 
the fugue is in five parts. 

204. We now give an exposition of a four-part fugue, taking 
the same subject as before, but adding an entirely different 
countersubject and beginning with a middle voice. We choose 
the alto, so as to retain the same key. 




Chap. VI.] 



The Exposition. 



8 9 



Notice first that though in § 194 we gave the subject to the treble 
in the same key, we should have somewhat cramped ourselves in 
four parts by beginning so low when there were three other voices 
to come underneath it. The number of the paits in which a 
fugue is to be written should be taken into account in selecting 
the voice and pitch of the subject. 

205. The student will by this time know enough of harmony 
and counterpoint to need no help in examining the above 
exposition. We will only remark that as the countersubject 
appears in both positions, the additional entry is here unnecessary ; 
and that while our three-part exposition ended in the key of the 
tonic (not counting the redundant entry), this one ends in 
the key of the dominant (§ 202). 

206. We sometimes meet with irregular expositions of fugues, 
in which the subject appears twice in succession before the 
answer is heard at all. The following is an example. 

Handel. ' Solomon. 



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To save space we have given this passage in "short score." 
Here, as the subject is repeated, the two voices of the same pair 
follow each other; the alto and bass enter with the answer, 
Notice, in passing, that we have here another example of an 
answer in the subdominant (§71). A fugue beginning in this 
way is sometimes described as an " Octave Fugue " to distinguish 
it from the ordinary fugue, in which the second entry is at a 
distance of a fourth or fifth from the first. In the familiar chorus, 
" Fallen is the foe," in Handel's ' Judas,' will be seen a fugue in 
which all the four entries are in the octave. 

207. In some fugues the exposition is followed, either 
immediately or after the first episode (which will be described in 
our next chapter), by what is called a Counter-exposition. This is 



9© Fugue [Chap. vi. 

really a second exposition m the same two keys (generally tonic 
and dominant) as the first, but with important differences. The 
chief of these are that in the counter-exposition the voices which 
before had the subject now have the answer, and vice versa ; and 
that frequently the answer leads and the subject replies. In 
fugues i and ti of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier' will be seen 
examples of the former, and in Nos. 26 and 33 of the same work, 
illustrations of the latter. Sometimes, as in the first fugue, the 
counter-exposition follows immediately on the close of the 
exposition ; at others (as in Fugue 11) it is separated from it by 
an episode. To save space, we simply refer to these pieces 
without quoting them ; we may fairly suppose that everyone who 
wishes to study fugal construction has a copy of the ' Forty-Eight ' 
by him for reference. If not, the sooner he gets one, the better. 
It should be added that in the counter-exposition the entries of 
the voices are generally accompanied by free counterpoint in the 
other voices ; it is seldom that the leading voice in the counter- 
exposition is found (as in the exposition) unaccompanied. 

208. In many cases, when there is a counter-exposition, it is 
only partial ; that is to say, not all the voices of the fugue take 
part in it. For example, in Fugue 38 of the ' Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier,' which is for three voices, the exposition, which ends at 
the nth bar, is followed by the first episode. In bar 14 begins 
the counter-exposition. The bass, which before had the subject, 
now leads with the answer, which is now real, though it was at 
first tonal (§ 109). Before the completion of the answer by the 
bass, the treble, which before had the answer, enters with the 
subject (bar 16), but the close of the subject in the treble is 
followed by the second episode, the alto not entering in the 
counter-exposition with either the subject or answer, and having 
only free counterpoint throughout. 

209. In the passage just referred to, we said that the treble 
entered with the subject "before the completion of the answer by 
the bass " ; and this leads us to notice a feature very often to be 
met with when there is a counter-exposition. In many cases this 
portion of the work is used to introduce the first stretto, — that is 
to say, in the counter-exposition, the entries of the subject are 
closer together than in the first exposition. For instance, in the 
fugue just noticed, the answer enters in the exposition three bars 
later than the subject ; but in the counter-exposition it is only two 
bars later. In the first fugue of the ' Forty-Eight ' the answer in 
the counter-exposition follows the subject at only one crochet's 
distance, instead of a bar and a half; and in the 31st fugue of the 
same work the counter-exposition takes the form of a canon at 
one bar's distance first at the fifth below, between tenor and bass, 
and then at the fourth above, between alto and treble. Con- 
siderably more latitude is allowed as to the entries in the 
counter-exposition than in the exposition. 

2 to. Occasionally we find a counter-exposition by inversion 



chafi vi.j The Exposition. 94 

In the fugue in G major, No. 15 of the ■ Forty -Eight,' we shall 
find an example of this kind between the 20th and the 31st bars ; 
and in the 46th fugue we shall find an elaborate counter- 
exposition, beginning at bar 42, in which not only the subject but 
the countersubject is inverted. 

211. It must be clearly understood that the introduction of a 
counter-exposition into a fugue is purely optional. The larger 
number of fugues do not contain one at all. We only find one in 
thirteen out of the 48 fugues in the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier'; 
and this is probably a fair average proportion. The instructions 
given in this chapter will sufficiently show the student how to 
write a counter exposition, if he wishes to do so. 

212. With the exposition or counter-exposition the first 
section of a fugue ends. The construction of the middle and 
final sections will be treated of in the following chapters. If the 
student can write a really good exposition, he is already well 
advanced on the road to fugal composition. Let him now take 
the subjects in Chapter IV., and write on them a series of four- 
part expositions, as he has presumably already done in three-parts. 
He should also write expositions on subjects of his own invention. 
He must try to get as much variety as possible both in his 
countersubjects, and in the free added parts ; he should also vary 
his order of entry in many different ways. He must keep his 
expositions when he has written them, to furnish him with 
material for the exercises he will have to write on the next 
chapter, 



92 Fugue, [Chap. vn. 



CHAPTER VII 

EPISODE. 

213. Though we occasionally meet with fugues in which the 
subject or answer is almost continuously present, a striking and 
well-known example being the first fugue in the 'Wohl- 
temperirtes Clavier,' it is generally advisable to give variety 
to the composition by the introduction of episodes. An Episode 
is that part of a fugue in which for a time neither subject nor 
answer is heard. In the majority of cases the reappearance of 
the subject attracts more attention and excites more interest, if it 
has been absent for a while. 

214. There is another important purpose also served by the 
episode. So long as subject and answer continue to enter (as 
in the exposition) at the distance of a fourth or fifth from one 
another, it is clear that we shall not get away from the tonic and 
dominant keys ; and although in the middle section of a fugue 
we often find entries at other distances than the fourth and fifth, 
it is frequently more convenient to effect the modulations by 
means of episode than to do so by varying the distances of 
entry, which would sometimes necessitate more or less important 
changes in the form of the subject itself. How modulations can 
be made during an episode will be seen presently. 

215. The student must be careful to distinguish between an 
episode and the codetta spoken of in the last chapter. When a 
codetta appears between the second and third entries in the 
exposition, it often has much the same character as an episode ; 
the difference is, that the former appears in the course of the 
exposition, and the first episode never till its close. This will be 
clearly seen from the following example, in which the codetta 
and the first episode are composed of nearly the same material. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 2. 



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Here the answer ends on the third of the dominant ; a codetta 
is therefore introduced (§ 193) to lead back naturally to the key 
of the tonic, in which the subject reappears. The codetta is 
made from a modified form of the first notes of the subject 
treated sequentially, and accompanied (also sequentially) by the 
first notes of the countersubject in inverse movement. This is 
not an episode, because the exposition is not yet complete. The 
subject then enters in the bass, with the countersubject above it. 
No additional entry being here required, as the subject was 
announced by the middle voice (§ 186); the exposition ends 
here, and is followed at once by the first episode. 

216. If we examine this episode, we shall see that it is made 
from the same material as the codetta, but with different treat- 
ment. The two upper voices have a theme founded on the 
first notes of the subject, the alto imitating the treble as a canon 
in the fifth below. The bass gives the commencement of the 
countersubject, not (as in the codetta) by inverse movement, 
but in its direct form. Observe also how, by means of sequence, 
a modulation is effected to the key of the relative major, in which 
key the subject follows in the treble voice immediately on the 
conclusion of the above extract. 

217. We said in Double Counterpoint (§ 307) that imitation 
was a most important ingredient in fugue, and the quotation 
just given will show, how it is to be used. Except in a stretto, 
the construction of which will be explained in our next chapter, 
imitation is seldom found during the entries of the subject itself; 
but it is almost constantly employed in the episodes. By this 
means unity of character is given to this part of the work, and 
anything like patchwork is avoided. 



94 



Fugue. 



IChap. VI i 



218. It is for the same reason that we mostly find the 
episodes of a fugue formed, either wholly or in part, from 
material already met with, either in the subject, countersubject, 
or codetta. We give examples of each. In the sixteenth fugue 
of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier,' the following is the subject. 



The fugue contains two episodes, both founded on the second 
bar of this subject. 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 16. 




In this episode the figure marked with a I I is seen in the 

different voices in turn, by direct, and once by inverse movement 
In the last bar, where a modulation is made to the relative major 
the imitation is merely rhythmic. 

219. The second episode is rather more elaborate. 




p C_ ^r ^ J 1: =SP > 




Here the bass treats the last part of the subject sequentially, 
while the figure of counterpoint propounded by the alto is 



Chap. VII.] 



Episode. 



95 



freely imitated by the treble in contrary motion. It must be 
noticed that, though the fugue is for four voices, both the 
episodes are in three parts. This is very common in four-part 
fugues ; it would be bad for all the voices to be continually at 
work throughout. Three-part, and even two-part, harmony is 
often met with, especially in the episodes, furnishing relief and 
contrast. In the four-part fugue in F minor (No. 12 of the same 
work), five out of the six episodes are for three voices only. 

220. In our next example the episodes are formed from the 
countersubject. The subject and countersubject of the fugue are 
the following — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 14. 




We have quoted the. codetta preceding the entry of the third 
voice, because (as we shall see directly) it is used at the beginning 
of the first episode, though it does not appear in the others. 

221. This fugue contains three short episodes. 

(*) 



ag ^^TO^ ^^ 




9 6 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VII. 




The first bar of (a) consists of the codetta, with the addition of 
a middle part ; the rest of it, as will be seen, is made out of the 
first notes of the countersubject. At {b) the same theme is seen 
in the bass, with free upper parts ; while at (c) it is treated 
sequentially, the outer parts which move in tenths imitating 
the inner parts moving in thirds. Here again, though the fugue 
is for four voices, two out of the three episodes are in only three 
parts. 

222. In § 191 we gave the subject of the seventh fugue in 
the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' In the second bar was seen a 
codetta before the entry of the answer, the reason for which we 
showed. From this codetta the episodes of the fugue are chiefly 
developed. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 7 




In this episode the codetta is treated by sequential imitation 
between the outer parts with a middle part, made from the 
augmentation of the semiquaver figure of the bass. The first 
part of the next episode 



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is an inversion of the preceding, the augmentation being now 
in the bass. By the substitution in the third bar of B natural 
for the B flat of our preceding quotation, a modulation is effected 
to the key of the relative minor. The figure of the codetta is 
maintained in the upper part till the end of the episode, the last 
two bars of which are in two-part harmony only. 

223. In another episode in the same fugue, of which we give 
only the beginning, 




the codetta has only a subordinate part ; it evidently suggested 
the arpeggio figure which is seen in the bass in the second half 
of each bar. The chief figure here is the sequence, the theme of 
the upper voice being a modification of the subject of the fugue. 
In our last example from this fugue, 




the same material is used as in our quotations {a) and (b). In 
its general character this episode much resembles (a) ; but the 



9 8 



Fugue. 



iCliap. VII. 



figute taken from the codetta is now allotted to the two lowei 
voices, and is seen in the alto by free inversion, and in the treble 
by augmentation. 

224. As all our examples hitherto have been from Bach, we 
will now give one by Handel. The second of his ' Six Fugues 
for Organ or Harpsichord ' is particularly rich in interesting 
episodes. We first give the subject and countersubject. 



gg 



Handel. Six Fugues, No. 2. 




Codetta 




In the first episode that we shall quote, 



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the first notes of the subject in the bass are imitated at half a 
bar's distance by the treble, and also accompanied by the 
countersubject in the middle voice in double counterpoint in 
the tenth ; the passage is twice sequentially repeated, after which 
an inverted cadence brings back the subject. 



chap, vi /.j Episode. 

225. The following episode 



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begins with repetitions of the first four notes of the subject 
(or answer), after which the same material is employed as in 
episode {&); but the notes of the countersubject are now used 
against a different part of the subject. The episode from which 
we shall next quote is too long to be given entire. 



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Here the last notes of the subject and countersubject (instead of 
the first, as hitherto) are developed. The first four bars of our 
extract show a sequential treatment of a one-bar theme ; at 
the fifth bar, the subject is in the bass, and is accompanied 
by the countersubject in inverse movement. At the ninth bar, 
the close of the subject is in the middle voice, and is 
accompanied by the countersubject, in direct movement above, 
and in inverse movement below. 



too 



Fugue. 



(Chap. VII. 



226. Two more short passages will conclude our examples 
from this fugue. 




Here we see two inversions of the subjects of episode (b). 
Though the second one, in which the original countersubject 
is in the bass, is not developed at any length, enough is given 
to show that the passage is written in triple counterpoint. 




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In the first bars of this passage we see the second and third bars 
of (b) treated by inverse contrary movement (Double Counter- 
point, § 454). In the fourth bar we see the inverted subject 
in sixths accompanied by the inverted countersubject in thirds. 

227. Occasionally the episodes of a fugue are formed from 
entirely fresh material. In this case care must be taken that 
the new matter is in keeping with what has preceded. An 
example of episodes of this kind will be found in Bach's Organ 
Fugue in D minor, arranged from one of his violin fugues — 



Chap. VII.] 



Episode. 



toi 



We give extracts from two of the episodes. 

J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in D minor. 



{a) 



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Another good example of the same kind will be seen in Bach's 
great Organ Fugue in E minor, 



228. In both the cases just referred to, the episode is of a 

more florid character than the subject of the fugue. In the 

great fugue which forms the finale of Beethoven's Sonata, 
Op. 106, the theme of which commences thus — 




we find an example of a different kind. Here is an episode in 
the key of D major, which itself begins like the exposition of a 
fugue — 

rs Beethoven. Sonata, Op. 106. 




Dolce e cantabile. 



§§ 



rirrnrrrigg 



^FT 



After this episode has been developed for 29 bars, Beethoven 



ro2 



Fugue, 



[Chap. VII. 



combines it with the first part of the subject of the fugue in the 
following manner — 



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It looks at first sight as if there were here a double fugue (§ 175), 
with an independent exposition of its second subject. That this 
is not really so, is shown by the fact that the episodical theme 
does not subsequently appear regularly as a counterpoint to the 
subject. 

229. Sometimes in the same fugue some of the episodes 
will be made from material already used, while others will be 
constructed of entirely new matter. An excellent example of this 
will be met with in the 37 th fugue of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier. 
We have already quoted the subject and countersubject of this 
fugue at § 162 (b). There are altogether four episodes. Of these 
the first and third were quoted in § 256 of Double Counterpoint, as 
an example of triple counterpoint in all its possible positions. 
The second episode is made from a sequential treatment of 
the countersubject, and the fourth is a transposition of the 
second, with inversion of the upper parts. This is often met 
with : for instance, in the two-part fugue in E minor (No. 10 of 
the 'Wohltemperirtes Clavier') there are four episodes, of which 
the third is an inversion of the first, and the fourth of the second. 

230. We could multiply examples to any extent, and have, in 
fact, noted far more for quotation than we have room to insert ; 
but we have already given enough to allow us to deduce general 
principles from them as to the construction of episodes. The 
first, and one of the most important inferences to be drawn 
from our illustrations, is the essential part played by sequence 
in nearly all the episodes. If we were forced to restrict ourselves 
to giving the student only one rule in this matter, we should 
select, as the most valuable we could give him, "Construct 
your episodes sequentially." Sequences not only furnish a very 
easy and simple means of modulation, but they combine variety 
of detail with unity of design in a degree which perhaps no other 
artistic device can attain. It is not necessary that the sequential 



chap, vin Episode. 103 

imitations be at any regular distance. Sometimes they are so, as 
in our examples to §§ 222, 223 ; at other times, as in the second 
part of our quotation in § 225 (dj, the distances of imitation are 
irregular. 

231. Sequential treatment, important as it unquestionably is, 
is by no means the only point to consider with regard to episodes. 
A no less necessary requisite is variety. Each episode must have 
some feature which has not been seen in any of the preceding 
episodes. A mere transposition of one episode into a different 
key will be invariably weak and bad if no modification be made. 
On the other hand, some of the best episodes are made by 
repetition of an earlier episode with inversion of parts. This 
gives the requisite variety, and at the same time preserves the 
artistic unity. 

232. Beyond these general principles, it is impossible to 
teach the student how to write episodes for his fugues, excepting 
by showing him how the great masters have written them. It is 
here (just as with the " free fantasia " of a sonata or symphony) 
that the composer's imagination has the fullest scope. So long 
as he keeps within the bounds of the artistic and beautiful, 
he may in this part of the fugue do whatever seems good in 
his own eyes ; and it will be in this part of the work, more 
than in any other, that his originality (if he have any) will be 
likely to assert itself. 

233. Besides its use for the purposes of modulation, the 
episode serves, as already said, to separate the different groups 
of entries, or isolated entries, of the subject. We shall see, when 
we come to treat of the middle section of a fugue (Chap. IX.), 
that there is no restriction as to the number of these middle 
entries. Sometimes they are very few, at other times they are 
numerous. Consequently we find great differences as to the 
number of episodes in different fugues. For example, in the 
1 Wohltemperirtes Clavier' the 31st fugue has only one episode, 
and the 16th only two; but the 3rd, 12th, and 15th have six 
each. The number will depend entirely on the number ot 
middle entries. 

234. The length of the episodes is as variable as their 
number. In the majority of fugues they are comparatively 
short — often only two or three bars each ; and in many cases 
it is better not to have too long an interval between the different 
entries of the subject. But they are occasionally found ot 
considerable length. For instance, of the six episodes in the 
fugue in C sharp major (No. 3 of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier '), 
the first four and the last do not exceed four bars in length, 
but the fifth extends to fourteen bars. In the F major fugue 
(No. 35 of the same work) is seen a very unusually long episode 
of 28 bars. This, however, is quite an exceptional case. The 
composer's feeling of proportion and balance must be his guide 
in deciding both on the number and length of his episodes 



io4 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VII. 



235. Occasionally, though very rarely in modern music, we 
find fugues without episodes. Such fugues were more frequently 
written, and more highly esteemed, by the old contrapuntists 
than they are at the present day. There is always danger of 
monotony if there are no episodes ; even the first fugue of the 
1 Wohltemperirtes Claviei ' — perhaps the finest fugue without 
episodes ever written — is from a purely musical point of view 
somewhat inferior in interest and charm to many others in the 
same collection. 

236. As it is only by actual working, and not by any amount 
of mere verbal instruction that fugal composition can be learned, 
we shall now practically illustrate the directions given in this 
chapter by writing a series of episodes suitable to follow the 
expositions given in the last chapter — in three parts in § 194, 
and in four parts in § 204. They are both in the key of 
D major; and we will assume that the next appearance of 
the subject is to be in B minor, which is one of the most 
probable keys for the next entry. Our exposition ended in 
A. major, from which key a modulation to B minor is perfectly 
easy, either direct or touching on D major first. In each of the 
episodes we give, we shall make use of material found in the 
exposition. We shall write all our examples in open score, 
that the student may be able to follow more easily the progression 
of the different voices ; and we strongly advise him to follow the 
same plan in all his fugal exercises. 

237. We first write some episodes to follow the three-part 
exposition in § 194, and in each case begin by completing the 
unfinished bar at the end. 




In this passage, the last half of the subject is treated sequentially 
in the treble, and accompanied by imitative counterpoint in the 
other two voices. 



Chap, vii.] Episode. 

. 238. For our next episode 



105 



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— (■ 

"1 F 


^-1 

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P=&c 



we take the codetta in the second bar, which precedes the 
entrance of the answer, treat it sequentially, with imitation 
in the fifth above between the two upper parts, and accompany 
it in the bass with a semiquaver figure, developed from the 

figure EE ^zdf~P = m tne second crotchet of the first bar of the 
alto part. 

239. In both the above episodes we have returned from A to 
D, before going into B minor. In our last example in three parts 
we will make the modulation direct. 




This episode is made from the first part of the countersubject, 
which is accompanied by a new semiquaver figure in the alto 
freely imitated in the tenth below by the bass. 



iob 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VII. 



240. We now give some episodes suitable for our four-part 
exposition. Although in actual practice, it is neither necessary 
nor expedient that all the episodes of a four-part fugue should 
be in four-part harmony, yet, as the episodes we are now 
writing are simply meant as illustrations of the method of 
composition, and as our previous examples have been in three 
parts, we will write these in four. As before, we begin by com- 
pleting the last bar of the exposition. 



imp 



^^ip 



i 



^ 




m r etc 



^^TT: 




This episode is founded on the first three notes of the subject, 
treated sequentially in the bass, imitated by inverse movement 
in the tenor, and accompanied by a semiquaver figure in the 
upper voices, which is an imitation, partly inverted and partly 
direct, of the tenor part in the first half bar of the passage. 

241. We not infrequently find in fugues that an episode 
is founded, not on subject or countersubject, but on one of 
the incidental counterpoints. To illustrate this, we construct 
our next episode in this way. 




Chap. VII. 



Episode. 



107 




The sequence here seen in the treble is founded on the figure 
employed in the tenor in the second half of the seventh bar 
of the exposition in § 204. It is accompanied by a sequence in 
the tenor, formed from the beginning of the countersubject, and 
imitated in the second above, and at one crotchet's distance by 
the alto. 

242. Our last episode is more elaborate, and is given to 
illustrate the incidental employment of canon in fugal writing. 




In the second bar of this passage the first bar of the counter- 
subject is introduced in the alto, and treated sequentially in 
the following bar. It is also accompanied by a sequential 
counterpoint. Both these parts are imitated by the tenor and 
bass, making a "4 in 2" canon ; but the inversion of the 
voices, instead of being, as usual, in the octave, is in the tenth. 



r 08 Fugue. [Chap. vn. 

thus giving a somewhat rare combination of canon and double 
counterpoint in the tenth. In the last bar of the episode, the 
canon is abandoned, and we have merely ordinary imitation, 
direct and inverted, of a fragment of the countersubject. 

243. These examples will show the student how much variety 
of episode is possible, even with such commonplace subjects 
as we have been treating here. He will now see clearly what 
we meant when in Double Counterpoint (§ 307) we spoke of 
Imitation as "a most important ingredient " in fugues. In 
fact, imitation and sequence are the chief essentials of good 
episodes. Let the student now turn back to the expositions 
he has written as exercises on the last chapter, and utilize 
his material (subjects, countersubjects, codettas, and incidental 
counterpoints) for the construction of many different episodes, 
after the manner which we have shown him in this chapter. 
He should write five or six episodes for each fugue, varying 
the keys to which he modulates. For the present he should not 
go beyond the nearly related keys 



Own VIII.j STRETTO. I09 



CHAPTER VIII. 

STRETTO. 

244. The word " Stretto " is the past participle of the 
Italian verb, " stringere," — to draw close. It is occasionally 
used in music other than fugues as equivalent to the present 
participle of the same verb, " stringendo," in the sense of 
pressing on, or hurrying up the time ; but when employed, 
as it mostly is, in connection with fugue, it is the name for 
that part of a fugue in which the entries of the subject or 
answer follow one another at a shorter distance of time than 
in the first exposition. 

245. Most theorists name the stretto as a necessary part of 
every good fugue. Cherubini speaks of it as an " indispensable 
condition " and an " essential requisite " ; and he adds that 
"a good fugal subject should always give scope for an easy 
and harmonious stretto." But this rule, like most others given 
in the old text-books, will not stand the test of applying it to 
Bach's practice. Out of the forty-eight fugues in the ' Wohl- 
temperirtes Clavier,' about half have no stretto at all; and 
of the remainder some have only a fragmentary, or partial 
one. If a stretto is really an essential part of a fugue, then 
it is evident that more than half Bach's fugues must be badly 
written. The simple truth is, that it is not Bach's workmanship, 
but the rule that requires to be altered. Any rules regarding 
fugue, which will not fit the works of the greatest fugue-writer 
that the world has ever seen, carry their own condemnation on 
their face. 

246. Instead, therefore, of laying down a law that every 
good fugue must contain a stretto, we maintain that, though 
often a most valuable ingredient of fugue writing, it is never 
absolutely indispensable. In the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier ' 
some of the fugues which have no stretto {e.g., Nos. 2, 12, 21, 
and 40) are among the finest and most perfect works of art of 
the whole collection. 

247. It is by no means every fugue subject that adapts 
itself easily and naturally to the purposes of stretto. A subject 
intended for this should be expressly designed for it in the first 
instance ; otherwise there will most likely be a certain stiffness 
or harshness about some of the imitations. For example, in 
writing the fugue subject of which we gave expositions in 



I IO 



FUGUF 



[Chap. VIII 



§§ 191, 204, it did not happen to occur to us to make one 
which would be suitable for stretto afterwards. Consequently, 
though it is quite possible to introduce later entries at a shorter 
distance than two bars, these will not be so effective, nor flow so 
naturally as if the subject had been written with this object in 
view. We give a few stretti as illustrations. 



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248. These examples, which must not be regarded as models 
of a good stretto, but are written to show that a stretto of 
some kind is mostly possible even for a subject not at first 
designed for it, illustrate several points relating to its construction. 
We see at (a) a case of common occurrence. Here the imitation 
is not in the fourth or fifth, but in the octave. As a matter of 
fact, the imitation in a stretto may be at any interval, though 
in general those in the fourth, fifth, and octave will be found 
the best. At (b), as at (a), the imitation is at one bar's distance ; 
but it is here in the fifth below ; the answer leads, and the subject 
replies. The imitation of the answer by the subject often gives a 
different set of combinations. 

249. At (<r) the subject leads and the answer replies at half a 
bar's distance. The consecutive fourths between the first and 
second bars are bad, as they stand ; but a stretto for two voices, 
like a two-part double counterpoint, is mostly accompanied by 
free parts. Here we have left the bass staff empty, instead of 
putting rests, to show that a bass is meant to be added, which 
will make the fourths right. Observe that the last note of 
the subject has to be changed here, to avoid consecutive octaves. 

250. Our last stretto, at (d), is also the closest. It is for three 
voices at one crotchet's distance. It is evident that now the 
bass cannot possibly complete the subject ; it will therefore 
have to continue with a free counterpoint, which we have 
purposely not filled in, so as to show only the close imitations. 
The middle voice now has the subject, per arsin et t/iesin, and, as 
at (t-), the last note requires to be altered. 

251. Before writing a subject specially to show the different 
possibilities of stretto, it will be well to give a few general hints 



Chap. VIII.] 



Stretto. 



I II 



for the guidance of the student. We said in § 248 that a stretto 
might be at any interval ; to this we now add that it may be in 
any number of parts. If a stretto is employed in a fugue at all, 
we generally find more than one ; and in that case, in order that 
the interest of the music may gradually increase, we mostly 
find the later stretti either in more parts or at a shorter distance 
of entry, or both, than the earlier ones. 

252. It is not always possible for the voices which entei 
first in a stretto to continue the subject after another voice 
has entered. This was shown in § 247 at (d), where the bass 
had to discontinue the subject on the entry of the treble. 
Though it is best to carry on the imitation as far as possible, 
it is always allowed to break off the subject, or to modify 
it after another voice has taken it up. But it should be 
remembered that the last entering voice in a stretto should have 
the subject complete. We of course use the words " subject " 
and " answer " indifferently here, as the entry may be at any 
interval. 

253. From the same consideration — that of freedom of 
interval in the entries — we are allowed in a stretto of a tonal 
fugue to employ either subject or answer, as may be more 
convenient. The imitations in a stretto may also be by 
augmentation, diminution, or inversion, or (as we saw at (d) 
§ 247) per arsin et thesin. 

254. We will now write a subject and answer adapted for 
stretto, and then show some of the numerous stretti of which 
it is capable. 



i 



& 



^pfjyjj JZj 



*&->*■ 



m 



p-t r r r r Cj" r 



V l tilrr cr'r 



As there is here in the subject an implied modulation to the 
dominant, the answer will be tonal. In accordance with the 
rule given in § 121, we regard the modulation as being made 
as early as possible — here, after the first note of the subject. 
The answer enters at the beginning of the fifth bar. 

2 55- We will first try to bring in the answer as near the 
end of the subject as we can. Clearly if we keep the tonal 
answer, we cannot introduce it in the fourth bar of the subject. 






This is manifestly impossible, though the addition of thirds 
below the answer would render it practicable. But we said 
• n § 2 53 tnat ^ was allowed to use either form of the subject 



Tit 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII. 



in the stretto of a tonal fugue. It would therefore be quite 
feasible to introduce the answer against the last bar of the 
subject thus — 



p i i i ji^ i ^' ^ j j^ g 



&c. 



As this passage is written in double counterpoint in the octave, 
the answer could also be introduced above the subject. 




&c. 



256. We will now reduce the distance of entry by half a 
bar, bringing in the answer, per arsin et f/iesm, on the second 
half of the third bar. 



^ _J j|j J_J J3 | J J ^Mjij 



&c. 



r f } r' r crr r 



The student will see that at this distance of entry, it is impossible 
to complete the subject. Note also that in consequence of the 
bare fifth at the end of the third bar this stretto cannot well be 
inverted (at least in two-part harmony) as the last one could. 

257. If we next try to make a stretto with the answer at two 
bars' distance, we shall have either to discontinue or to modify 
the subject on the entry of the answer. 



== &c 



It would, however, be possible here to continue the subject 
unchanged to the end, if we make the imitation in the octave 
instead of the fourth. We shall have to shorten the first note of 
the imitation (§ 57). 





• r r cr f 



i 1 



This stretto, like that in § 255, will also invert in the octave 



cr 



P 



^^ 



rz'irrr^ 



&c 



Chap. VIII.] 



Stretto. 



"3 



258. At one bar's distance we can get a stretto in the fifth 
below. 



i 



(a) 



I 1- 



Jllj J J JJlJj^ 



r rcr'r efr 



gg j 



-w-* 1 »* 



^^£ 



FfPPr? r * l = ^ 



We might here also have preserved the tonal form of the answer 
by treating the A in the second bar as an accented passing note. 




&c. 



In the fourth bar we have varied the rhythm of the imitating 
voice, to retain the subject in the leading voice for half a bar 
longer. Obviously we could not write 



Such slight modifications, either of rhythm or melody, are very 
common, and always permissible in a stretto. We now give 
the inversion of the above. 




259. Lastly, we can make a stretto with this subject at only 
half a bar's distance. 




Like most of the preceding, this stretto can be inverted in the 
octave. 
ft) 



J J3 j j >. OJJT? 




260. If now we begin with the answer instead of the subject, 
we shall obtain a different series of stretti, though resembling 
those already given in their general character. 



ii4 



Fugue. 



[Chap Vlll. 



Here the subject enters three bars after the answer. We give the 
inversion, 



(*) 



y_J. 



JJ3-t.LJ-JJ3.JI 



261. We next show the answer followed by the subject at two 
bars' distance. 



(«) 



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U J J . j-J 



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Ul 



J AA 



S-J-Z&i- 



s* 



&c 



£ 



1 — r 



It will be seen that the leading voice cannot here continue the 
subject to the end. This imitation inverts as follows — 



1 



V) 



1 1 1 j J rrri f^g 



&c 



1 1 r J k r r crir r r Cr i r 51 



5H 



262. At one bar's distance the answer cannot be comfortably 
imitated by the subject. Here, therefore, we make the imitation 
in the octave; and even at this interval we cannot continue it 
long. 

j j J «D 



=F 



r r r a* 



263. At half a bar's distance, it is possible to reply with the 
subject, and the imitation can be continued somewhat farther 
than in the last example. 



1 



(«) 



^ 



J-J I J JJJ-J jJ ^/^ 



&c. 



^=5^ 






T-f 1 ■ ■ - 

The above will also invert — 




&c. 



264. Hitherto we have only given stretti in two parts ; 
but the subject we have chosen will also work in stretto in 



Chap. VIII.) 



Stretto. 



"5 



three or tour parts in many different ways. We give two 
specimens in three, and two in four parts. 



i * ■— ' — i- 



zsz: 



&c. 



£=£ 



t=^ 



Here is a simple example, in which each part follows at a 
distance of one bar. The intervals of entry are irregular ; 
the alto being a fifth below the treble, and the bass a seventh 
below the alto. 



265. In our next example, 



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F^-Cnrr ry i r crrr ,r r 



t=n 



P 



^U^* 



3=F 



&c. 



*t 



i 



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the intervals of entry are the same as in the last ; but a quite 
different effect is produced, because now the answer leads and 
the subject replies ; and, besides this, the distance of time in 
the entries is irregular, the second voice being two bars later 
than the first, and the third voice only one bar later than the 
second. 

266. In our first four-part example, 



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the entries are regular as regards distance of time (one bar), 
but irregular as to interval. In this stretto it is not possible 
in any of the voices (except, of course, the bass which is the 
last to enter, and in which it should be complete— § 252) to 
continue the subject to any great length. 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII 



267. We lastly give the closest possible stretto in four parts. 
4 




Here the entries are regular both as regards time and interval, 
each succeeding voice being introduced half a bar later, and 
a fourth below the preceding one. It will be noticed that in 
each voice the subject is carried down to the same point. 

268. We have now given more than twenty stretti on the 
same subject, of which we have by no means exhausted the 
possibilities. It is probable that, by using all the combinations 
in three and four parts at the various distances of time and 
entry, we might make at least forty or fifty stretti on this 
subject. The student may not unnaturally be inclined to ask, 
What is the difference in character between this subject and 
the one worked in § 247 ; and how is it that so few good 
stretti could be obtained from the one, and so many from 
the other? The explanation is very simple. We said in § 247 
that a subject intended for stretto should be expressly .designed 
for that purpose. The best and easiest way of so designing it 
is, to write it in the first instance as a canon in the fourth or fifth 
at the shortest distance at which it is intended ultimately to 
be introduced. In the present instance we began by composing 
the little canon seen at § 259 (a), as far as the first note of the 
fourth bar. We then completed the subject by the addition of 
the notes — 



$ 



The entries at longer distances were then found by experiment — 
trying to fit the answer against the subject, or the subject against 
itself, at all possible intervals and distances of entry. It will 
nearly always be found that subjects which, like this one, work 
in close stretto, can also be employed at longer distances. 

269. The stretto is mostly met with in the middle and 
final sections of a fugue, of which we shall speak in the next 
chapter ; but when the fugue has a counter-exposition, the 
first stretto (as already mentioned in § 209) is frequently intro- 
duced at that point. A good illustration of this is seen in 
fche 33rd fugue of the * Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' We quote 
the exposition and the counter-exposition. 



Chap. VIII.] 



Stretto. i 1 7 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 33 



tA 



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sa 



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10 



11 



12 



The bars are numbered for convenience of reference. Note 
the altered forms of the countersubject spoken of in § 17a 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII. 



The exposition ends at the beginning of the seventh bar. The 
two bars that follow have hardly enough distinct character to 
constitute an episode ; ,they are rather a kind of codetta — a 
prolongation of the exposition, leading up to a half close, to 
introduce the counter-exposition. Here we see (§ 207) that 
the voices which before had the subject (the bass and alto) 
now have the answer, while the tenor and treble have the 
subject ; we also see the entries in a rather close stretto. It 
looks at first as if the introduction of a close stretto so early 
in the fugue were premature ; but Bach has other devices in 
reserve for the later part of this fugue, as we shall see presently. 
270. In the 31st fugue of the same work, the counter- 
exposition contains a canonic imitation in stretto, first between 
tenor and bass, and then between alto and treble. We quote the 
passage ; the subject and answer of the fugue were given in § 88. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 31. 





Slap. VIII.] 



Stretto. 



119 



Here, as in our last example, the answer leads and the subject 
replies ; but a deviation is made from the usual practice, 
inasmuch as the tenor, which had the answer in the first 
exposition, has it again here, and the bass (as before) has the 
subject ; but with the other pair of voices, the usual plan is 
followed, the alto now giving the answer instead of the subject, 
and the treble giving the subject instead of the answer. The 
irregularity is probably due to the fact that Bach intended to 
invert the canon on its repetition by the upper pair of voices. 
Canonic imitation in stretto is not uncommon in a fugue ; the 
student will see other instances of it in Nos. 20 and 46 of 
the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier ' ; but it is seldom met with so 
early as in the counter-exposition ; more frequently we find it 
in the middle or final section of the fugue. 

271. Though, as has been already said, the imitations in a 
stretto may be at any interval, it is generally advisable to 
observe some kind of order in the entry of the different voices. 
Our next example will illustrate this point, as also that mentioned 
in § 252, that one voice in a stretto may discontinue the subjecl 
as soon as another voice enters with it, but that the last voice 
that enters should complete the subject. The student will find 
the subject, answer, and countersubject of this fugue in § 169. 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 24. 
— incomplete. 




fe 




T20 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII 




Here the entries are at a regular distance of one bar after 
each other ; the alto is a fifth below the treble, the bass a fifth 
(twelfth) below the alto, and the tenor the fourth above the 
bass, which is the inversion of the fifth below. Each voice, 
except the tenor, which is the last to enter, discontinues the 
subject when the next voice enters with it. In the fifth bar of 
the extract is seen a fragment of the countersubject in the 
alto, which, in the following bar, is continued by the treble. 
It is not uncommon in the middle section of a fugue to find a 
countersubject begun by one voice and completed by another. 
It should be noticed that the counterpoint of semiquavers, 
seen first in the bass and then in the treble, is developed 
from the codetta in the fourth bar of the example in § 169, 
before the entry of the countersubject. 

272. Sometimes not only the subject, but the countersubject 
of a fugue is used in a stretto. A remarkably fine example 
of this is seen in the great five-part fugue in C sharp minor 
of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' It will be remembered that 
this fugue has two countersubjects, both of which we quoted in 
§ 172. Only the second one, shown at (b) is employed with the 
subject in the stretto. Though the passage is rather long, it is so 
interesting, and deserves such careful examination that no apology 
is needed for quoting it in full. 

cs 2 



§ 






m 



1 



mi 



n 



e 



CSl- 



Chap. VIII.] 



Strrtto. 



XI 



l^^^p — L 


s 




r f 


p_ ^— 


ir ~ 




-i 


■ f *d - 


„ fl ^-^ C S2 




-f ^ = ^= 




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c s ° 




C S ° 


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as 



m 



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T22 



Fugue, 



[Chap VIII 



m 



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CS2- 






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a 




It would occupy too much space to analyze this passage fully. 
The student, with the aid we have given him by marking all 
the entries, will have no difficulty in doing it for himself. But 
this extract illustrates a point we have not yet had occasion 
to notice. It contains two pedal points, first dominant and 
then tonic. These, the former especially, are not seldom to 
be met with toward the close of a fugue, more particularly 
with vocal fugues ; and when they are found, it is very common 
also to find close stretti built above them. 

273. A stretto may be made from only a part of the subject 
of a fugue, with a new continuation. The " Amen " chorus of 
the ' Messiah ' furnishes a familiar illustration of this ; the subject 
of the fugue is too well known to need quotation. 



Chap. VIII.) 



Stretto. 



123 

Handel. ' Messiah. 




Here the first five notes only of the subject are taken for the 
stretto, the continuation of the passage being new. The stretto 
is at one crotchet's distance in all the voices, and is in reality a 
canon 4 in 1, at the octave and fourth below. 

274. A fugue subject may also in a stretto be taken by 
inversion, augmentation, or diminution, or any combination of 
these, instead of in its original form. No rules can be given as 
to when these devices should be employed ; this must be left 
to the judgment of the composer. We give a few examples. 
The subject of the 6th fugue in the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier ' 
is the following — 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 6. 




The answer enters in the third bar. In the course of the fugue 
we meet with the subject slightly altered in form (a major third 
being substituted for a minor), and imitated at one bar's distance 
by its own inversion. 

0) S : j — -._ 




Later still all three voices of the fugue take part in the stretto, 
the inverted subject now leading. 

S (inverted) : 

to -•• - - m^^-m 




124 



Fugue, 



fCtaao. VTII 



p gjT rrrr r j^r 



g * r - 




275. Our next example, also in three parts, shows augmenta- 
tion of the subject, as well as inversion. 

J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 8. 



m j ^l-rTf— £d»* wg 



« rf gg r- 




S (augmented )- 



m fy j ^ -P i 



#• 6* -*- ■, 



^gferf- 


r 


S (inverted ) 

r *--i 


If^fP 


rr f 


- 1* r r-i^g 


=1 


g) * * — 


-^ 




-i 1 

— y^fg- 

r~ gj 


1 1 rfj 
■ g • g 


-^— 1— 


i r — u^ * 


— -j 


,M |f I j 'T 


^ 


Mfrrf- 


=£= 


-C2- 
—] 




l»y 


-1 


^^ ^ O 

— 1 1 F 


^-j 


U-i_* 








— 1 




1 1 






Chap. VIII.] 



Stretto. 



»5 



The student will find the subject and answer of the fugue in 
§ 192. In our extract the subject in the middle voice is imitated 
in the fifth below and by augmentation, at half a bar's distance, 
therefore in a close stretto. On the completion of the subject by 
the alto, the treble gives it by inversion. Thus the augmented 
subject is accompanied in the first half by the subject in direct, 
and in the second half in inverted form. The bass then takes 
the subject in its direct form, and is followed (again at half a 
bar's distance) by the alto with the augmented subject. A 
comparison of the two voices here with their appearance at the 
beginning of our quotation shows us that the subject and its 
augmentation are here inverted in double counterpoint in the 
twelfth. The treble now accompanies the augmentation at a 
different point from before, and with the direct instead of the 
inverted form of the subject. 

276. In speaking of the first stretto of Bach's fugue in E, in 
§ 269, we said that Bach had other devices in reserve for the 
later part of the fugue. The following extract will show what 
was meant. 



i 



BE 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 33. 



S (diminished) 




S (dimd.h 



:£=P= 






t£Z 



-J g ) 



S3 



S (dimd.)— 



:st 



s> V -I & 



rVtt J 1 j J 


p r ^ — ^ — *-f — j a J ' - — 


S (invd. & dimd.) 

n. f j 1 ! v- 


m-=- — - j * m 


-j— -j — i 1 1 — 1 s fl*. -g — 


1 ■: 4 « • 


-£ g- ^ ^ rv e ^-_ 


rf P- p 1 


n-^-r r 1 ' 


S (inv d . & di 

zd C" f*^ * m Till 


1 [.■ t 


flhff P V r p- 


tA) , 

■ f— h»-r-f 


inlfl* \ 1 — !— f- 


j(l..S—zx= r - • ' i^=* 


J * - 1 11 1 


e*A f * r r- 


1 ^ S(dimd.) ^ 

p r ^f 2 1 1 = -J 1 -J - 1 


, S (invd. 

1..J r . q 


^ g-g-i — 1 — i— 


1 1 1 s! *" 1 w 1 * 


' ' P 



126 



Fugue. 



[Cbap. VilZ. 




& dinA)- 



S (invd. & dimd. ) 



&/s r J r V g • jg InFf 1 *) 



:*£: 



rs2T. 



The first half of this passage shows us the subject treated by 
diminution, and imitated mostly at half a bar's distance. In the 
second half, the subject is both diminished and inverted, the first 
note being varied, and in this form it is used as a counterpoint 
against the subject in its original shape. 

277. We said above (§ 252) that one voice was allowed 
to discontinue the subject in a stretto when the next voice 
entered with it. It is, however, sometimes possible for each 
voice to continue the subject to the end, so that the stretto is 
a canon at short distances of time for all the voices. A close 
stretto of this kind was called by the old theorists a stretto 
maestrale — that is, a " masterly stretto." The following is a fine 
example — 

J. S. Each. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue i. 

S — 




Chao. VI11.] 



Stretto. 



127 



Here, though the interval of entry is irregular, there is a certain 
symmetry observable ; the alto is a fourth below the treble, and 
the tenor a fifth above (the inversion of a fourth below) the bass. 
Such slight modifications of the subject as are seen in the tenor 
here are always permissible in a close stretto. The first notes of 
the bass are the conclusion of an entry of the subject in that 
voice. 

278. Another interesting example of the stretto maesirale is 
seen in the following — 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 29. 




Here the distances of entry are regular, both as regards time and 
interval, each voice entering a third (or tenth) below, and a 
crotchet after the preceding. The entries of alto and bass are 
consequently per arsin et thesin. Even a finer example may be 
seen in the fugue which forms the finale of Mozart's "Jupiter" 
symphony. The passage was quoted in Double Counterpoint, 
§ 305, as an illustration of close imitation. 

279. There is still one variety of stretto to be mentioned. 
Sometimes, though comparatively seldom, the first exposition of 
the fugue is in stretto, the answer entering before the completion 
of the subject, and very often immediately after its commence- 
ment. In such cases the second pair of voices will mostly follow 
the first pair with subject and answer at the same distance of 
interval and time. 



(«) 



J. S. Bach. Motett, "Der Geist hilft uns're Schwachheit auf. 



fA'V - ' 


JUL ' ' IB ' JB m 


y \< 




■aii> vi» ■ ' 


1 


-= — r^—^ — rr r r r r r r r h 


nl 4|2 -, 


— f- ' ' ^ — 1 — 1 — V — I — [- — 1 — 1 — 1 


W-.b/i* = — 'fr- 


r r r 1 r r r r i r r * r i r r—^^ 


M? % — f— 


_J ! ! 1 1 1 j_ — | — {_ — | 1 ! L : 



28 



Fugue. 



iChap. VIII. 



3V - -\ 


A 

-= = F — r f r r r f r F-r-f- 


r — = — J 

g 


-[- 1 L_L_4~|_M— T-f— F— U- 


BB-b ~ j= 


i r r fi r r r r i r-rr^^r-^ 


.}|E-= 1 


_J 1 , -L_...|.. |. | ,| . | . ,_ -| ... . .!__ | _1_ _| 


m? r-4Z 


r t^ r — n — f-5- -j-r ' " 


iftr — — \~ — ! 


J h^U p f p__ff — d_| 


&*j r *rr r- 


-^ p — = — f- — ^ — f g r F- 


^_j — *j_j — p_ 


f_ f= 1 1 1 — L — ! 




A fugue of this kind is generallv called a " close fugue." We give 
two specimens of the beginning of a close fugue by other composers. 



y V K— -— 








— 




A 


Handel. ' Israel in Egypt.' 
--J ! I--J cj 


to* — - 




1 t= 


■zj 


^ gJ J^j (S* =-( 


j 






£ 








1 


■ Ui,u - 


M ■ 


— » — h~ — ■ 


. — \— -i =- 


- -fs< B — &- -p* — m—m <s> 


KR^p — 1 




| 


\^-f\T- i r\\ \ H -J 


1U1 , | 








F r" 3 


&c. 




— ^ 1 h — 




tFrhP^ 


— <s> — 


— Vr 


-<? 1 p r ; 


1 F 1 


| <=> ra ^~ 






— n — i_j — i — i — i — i — 




(c):/|> ^~ 


^j 


t^-4 




r=j 




• 

>— ^ — 




(— ~ 1 1 f»-i 


r^- (c) 




3=^1 


-1 — 


3= 


-r— J 




Mendelssohn. • St. Paul. 


1 •■ 




■■ 


- |- A J^ 


fiP— 




i 






'j <=> \ 






jjji-P-fj 


_ 


— 


z=s (S> « p - -f 


w 1 ^ 


™ 






-r — p — ^H — - 1— 4 


Mm 


A 
















IN lLjI— m m 

Fli *j 


— fS*- 


— isa_ 


— p_ 


T~^r g r 


s- 




J 1 1 , 






G* 


— f^ 1 — 


— fs> p-s o4 


-T3 - 


Sbj-p 


_4— 






r 




-1 1 


i — \ 





Chap. VIIL] 



Stretto. 



129 



I 



22= =P 



P 



*Z= 



Ukr g g 



in 



I 



&c. 



E 



=f=PF 



280. The second pair of entries in a close fugue is sometimes 
at a different distance of time from the first. 

Handel. 'Jubilate. 



I 



!ESE 



m 



rrr g 



4SL 



d=t 



^^ 



tafc 



£ 



4==t 



t=sp 



I rJ 



fet 



s 



22: 



£ 



r J k- r i f 



Bi 



^ 



g 



?z 



n 



j r r r i r rir r- 1 r" rir; 



&c. 



3=£ 



S 



-<a- 



^S 



22: 



Here the tenor follows the alto at one bar's distance ; but 
the treble does not enter till three bars after the bass. Notice 
that here, as the first entries are by the middle voices, the 
second pair of entries give the inversion of the first pair — 
the answer being now above the subject instead of below it. 
If the student will examine the various entries of the subject 
here, he will see that they differ so much towards the close 
as to render it impossible to decide with absolute certainty 
where the subject ends. For this reason we have not marked 
its limits as in our other examples. 
J 



13' 



Fugue. 



(Chap VI II. 



281. In speaking of the answer of a fugue, we pointed out 
that a subject in the key of the tonic must have an answer 
in the key of the dominant. But if this is done with a close 
fugue, we shall have the music in two keys at the same time. 
In this case, therefore, to keep a clear tonality, we do not 
put the answer in the key of the dominant, but simply transpose 
the subject a fourth or fifth without leaving the key. In example 
(a) of § 279, the answer is just as much in the key of B flat as 
the subject. 

282. As all our examples till now have been from Bach 
and Handel, we will conclude this chapter with some extracts 
from the works of more modern composers. Next to Bach, 
the greatest master of all kinds of scientific writing is un- 
questionably Mozart. We saw this in the specimens of canon 
by him given in our last volume; and he is no less great in 
fugal writing. One of the best, though one of the least known, 
of his masses, is No. 12 in C. This work contains three fine 
fugues, in one of which, the " Et vitam," we meet with a 
peculiarity of form, deserving mention. A partial stretto occurs 
on the first entry of the answer, and this is seen against each 
succeeding entry. We quote the exposition. 



M 



m 



Mozart. Mass in C, No. 12. 



im 



1 



& 



^ 



^ 



* g ir c/rT Jl 



5E 



i 



^-Tf 5 " 



WF^ffWr^ M 



Chap VIII.] 



ST RET TO. 



131 



f^=F 



P p 



g^g 



v T~p 1 




i 



^ 



r i fsr rJ i w * r ^r L -c J" 



1 



?£e 



^&= 



p p 



i 



cs- 



-M- 



^ 



gg 



m 



&UU- 



^ 



CS- 



Sc. 



^^=i^.^^H^srr-^ 



rsz: 



It will be seen that when the tenor has the answer, the bass 
imitates it in stretto. When the alto enters with the subject, 
the imitation is given to the tenor, and then for the first time 
appears the countersubject in the bass ; it thus accompanies 
the second entry of the subject instead of the first entry of 
the answer as usual. There is an additional entry (§ 186) 
of the subject in the bass, to allow both the countersubject 
and the imitation in stretto to appear above it. 



3* 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII. 



283. From the numerous stretti found in this fugue, we select 
two for quotation. 



(a) CS 



Mozart. Mass in C, No. 12. 




I 



^£ 



321 



bJ J J- 



I 



P 1* I g 

I I 3i 



££ 



I M m * r 

1 r r I r 



^= 



i I 



%=F 



B 



^==^=^-=^ 



5^ 



34: 




Here not more than three of the voices are engaged with the 
subject at the same time. It will be seen that the entries in 
the bass and treble are per arsin et thesin, and that the last 



Chap VIII.] 



Stretto. 



*33 



voice to enter (the tenor) gives the subject complete, the other 
entries being mostly fragmentary. Our second extract 



m= 








A 

-P P 


~P" 




— I— 


P " F 


■ p . i» 


-= 




- - - - - 


S 

=P_= 


— £2 

— 1 


-P 1 

11° F . 


-t— 

-*- 


p P 




h — r 


l ul 

— i 


"f 

=F=I 


hi — 




A 

■i P 


-1 


— fii 


1 r— 

p j • f 


-J — 

-p- 


\ — 1— 

p r-> 


— U- 


-1 — 
p 


. p ... 


i 

&c. 


■ini 

s 


1 

P r^ I 


^FS 


— 1 


— m —\ — h- 

■p- ■ f p — 




-r-f- 


-^— 1 


-i — 
p=p= 




1 

1 ^ 1 


sS> i . 


J 1 — 


r #> 


-i — i — 


\ * \ 1 




J- 1 - 


-1 




— I 


' 



is the last and closest stretto, and is founded only on the first part 
of the subject. In this all the voices take part. 

284. The fugue in Mozart's quartett in D minor (No. 13), of 
which we gave the subject in § 150, is particularly rich in good 
stretti. We give some of the closest. 



Violino imo. 



VlOLINO 2do. 



Viola. 



Violoncello. 






Mozart. Quartett in D minor, No. 13. 



is * m c» fc 



-1 r 



j^ 



gr cp gp frc 



i=t 



$ee 



-*p-fr 



^S 



Sffi 



'V? I 



1 1 r 



-j — 1- 



|g=te 



^^f^ 



1 " 1 



jg I g br 



If ttr »p tir ^» 



(*) 



i 



r~ i*~ *y 



E 



^:-~p-^ 






&c. 


1 1 -f- 






wb p 1 — 


-1 


— L*- L 


■ « 






1 ' ' 1 -^L. j 



34 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII. 



P 



1 = -i 1 1 1 F ' 



^?*=h?c 



I I I I 



I K I 




ir>av "r 



I 



b ^JbJ 



rg*rr i 



1 



* La ! -J 



^=^Mi^ 



IZ+^Fr 



^■i.^fflijj - 1 j imi JU I 



1 



1 UiiJ a J IqJ-J J, «l | ^Qj 



» r Cr»p' 



S 



g Jt i J jqj bJ J & g J j •' I J 3 



I 



( g )^- ftg- I?- |^U 



i — r 



r- r- 



u* feg 



4^- 



(* » r 



#-i *- 



1=t 



II — I i*r ^r *r jjg i r r i -"VH^^-a 



ffr br g* be 



:£=£ 



£=p= 



1 E 



4= 



h»- br b 



§ 



i I I 



fp£=- fr r r nr j r i ; 



W) 



i r r J * I J"^3^^ 



^=t 



Chap. VIII.] 



Stretto. 



135 



|A 




■■ — 
















# 


— 1 


— 1 — i— 


W 


^ 


1— 










=t 


— i— 
4- 


— H 


— 1 


& 


^-^t- 
*■ 


— U 

1— 


1 


I 


Btfifc: 


r/o 


— sL 




"5» 


! 1— 


— \ — 
1 . 


-#- 


W= 


-1 
"I 


1^— sr 






1^ 


L^-^— 


1— 


kit 




-^ 


-1 



After the full explanations given of previous examples, but few 
words are needed with regard to these. Observe that at (b) 
both subject and answer are employed by inversion, as well 
as in their direct form ; and that at (d) all the imitations are in 
the unison and octave. 

285. It is not uncommon in a stretto to find the. last notes 
of the subject slightly altered. In the fugue occurring in the 
course of the second chorus of Mendelssohn's 95th Psalm, we 
find a stretto so continuous that if the original subject 



g ^-^l-r-r , ^ r-h~ =^ 



had been retained unaltered, we should have had a stretto 
masstrale. It will be seen that the modification is in the 
melody, not in the rhythm. 

Mendelssohn. 95th Psalm. 



#*#= 


f-J . 


1 


— , 




s- 

— p — r 


H |-*r== — 


~f~f~ 





g-ft - 


1 
s 

• m O 


1 


=P=P=* 


-f-r~ 


o- 

1 

•or* 


J J -^ 

«j_, 

r r r r 


4-i- 


...r Oq 




=4=1= 


S 


1 ' l 
— Hr^— 


1 


— U-l — 1 — 

fr» s 


r ' i r 

1 
• err b * 


1 1 

1 


«* 1 

— r~ 


£*6 




JL-*!. 

— Ff5?— 


J 1 


-i — u- 

S— 


1 i f 


- — rir.o 


_£ — CJ 

1 

-0- p 


1 


W 








*l 


* * \ 


— 1 — 1 — 1_ 


"1 1 


■ u i .1 





-I — y 


-r* — r 1 r ■ f 


ffi» • 


— m- 


1 

-O-l 


^ • 


— (& — 


-0- 


"I 3 " - 


f— 


— 1 


J 




1 * 1 ' > 


1 1 
s— 

1= — r _ 


->^ 




—J j L_ 




4sU 
— 1 — 


H 


^*- 


-OI 


-^a — 
— 1 


ri T 


# 


Jfg ' 






-*o- 


_| — 1 — ! 

.ALL* m-^ 


— 1 — 


-J — 


-1 — 
m 


5 






Ff= 


— f=^ 




• B* 


■<sv 


— 1 — 




tfu-f— 


— 1— 


-1 1— v 

s 


-1 — |— 


=P= 


-O— 


1 


—J*? — 1 

i 

\r& 




."C 


r~ 


H 


— — ' — 


-t 


r 1 T1-J 

-1 — 1 — H 




1 


1 




r — 


— fL 
— 1 — 


bt= 


1 


— 1 



3& 



Fugue. 



[Chap. VIII. 



286. Our next illustration is by Spohr. The original subject 
of the fugue is 



In the last and closest stretto of this fugue, only the first notes 
of the subject are imitated by the alto and tenor ; but the treble, 
which enters last, gives rhe entire subject, though with some 
modifications of detail. 



Spohr. ' Fall of Babylon. 

£2 s-^ — r-m- 




287. Our last examples, by a living composer, will illustrate 
the modern freedom of treatment in a stretto. 



Brahms. Deutsches Requiem. 




Chap. VIII.] 



Stretto. 



137 



The lower notes on the bass staff are the real bass of the 
harmony, given to the orchestra ; the upper notes show the 
voice part. Here is an example of a close stretto, modulating 
freely from C through F and B flat to E flat. This is distinctly 
modern in character ; the old masters rarely go beyond tonic and 
dominant keys in a very close stretto. 



i 



m 



SE 



^ g^ 



^: 



1 



m 






I 



^-^ 



.&&- 



& -p- 



j£2- 



zz 



g 



i 



izz 



I 



-*sl 



=f^fc 



&c. 



K — ?g- 



i=t 



-i^-fr 



te P br^. 



e i s r g p i g r - g p ^ ; °p f^-r e m -f 



In this passage from the same fugue, the imitation is closer 
and more continuous than in the preceding. There are in all 
nine entries of the fragment of the subject, the last being a 
sequential repetition of the preceding. 

288. The stretto is capable, as will be seen from our examples, 
of so much variety that it is impossible to deal exhaustively 
with the subject in such a book as this. It is hoped that 
enough has been said in this chapter to enable the student 
to analyze for himself, and to understand any stretti that he 
may meet with in the fugues he may be playing. He will 
learn far more by such analysis than in any other way ; and 
it is for this reason that we have dissected and explained so 
many passages in this and the preceding chapters. 

289. As practical exercises on the stretto, let the student 
take the fugue subjects given at the end of Chapter IV., and 
try to make as many stretti as he can from them. He will 
find that some of them will work quite easily in this way, 
while others will be less pliable. He should try them at various 
distances, both of time and interval. For his two-part stretti he 
should also write free parts, making three or four-part harmony. 



1,^8 Fugue. [chao. rx. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE MIDDLE AND FINAL SECTIONS OF A FUGUE. 

290. Hitherto our task has been comparatively easy. It is 
possible to give very definite rules as to the correct answering of 
a fugue subject, the treatment of the exposition and episodes, and 
the construction of stretto. But in dealing with those parts of a 
fugue which we are now approaching, we are met by far greater 
difficulties than any we have as yet encountered. These arise 
from the fact that as soon as in composing a fugue we get 
beyond the exposition (or counter-exposition, if there be one), we 
are left to a very great extent free to do what we please ; and it 
is quite impossible here to give more than very general principles 
for the guidance of the student. 

291. The first great fact which must be clearly grasped is, 
that every fugue, however much variety there may be in the 
details, is in its main outlines constructed in the same genera] 
form. This is the form which is commonly known by the name 
of Ternary or Three-part form.* A movement in ternary form can 
always be divided into three principal sections. In a piece other 
than a fugue (for instance, in the slow movement of a sonata, in 
which this form is frequently used), the first section will be mostly 
in the key of the tonic, and will close either in that key, or in 
one of the most nearly related keys — probably the dominant if 
the movement be in a major key, and the relative major if it be 
in a minor key. The second part of such a movement generally 
consists of an episodical subject, but is invariably in a different 
key from the first part; while the third section usually repeats 
the subject of the first in the tonic key. 

292. We can best show the ternary form by a diagram — 



1st Section. 

Chief subject. 

(Tonic key.) 



2nd Section. 

Episode. 

(Related key.) 



3rd Section. 
Chief subject. 
(Tonic key.) 



This skeleton form can be filled up in an almost infinite number 
of different ways, as regards variety of detail ; but the broad 
outline given above can always be distinctly traced. 

* The subject of Form as a whole will be dealt with in a later ' volume of this 
series ; but a short account of ternary form is needful here to render the subsequent 
explanations intelligible. 



dap. i x.j Middle and Final Sections. 139 

293. The same form, though with some modifications, which 
we shall proceed to point out, is clearly to be seen in every 
well-written fugue. Its first section comprises the exposition and 
counter-exposition, when there is one, or (if there be no counter- 
exposition) it may also include an entry of subject or answer after 
the liist episode, provided such entry be in either of the keys of 
the exposition. It will be remembered that the whole of the 
exposition oscillates, if we may so speak, between the keys of the 
tonic and dominant. If at the end of the exposition, the first 
episode modulates, so as to introduce an entry of the subject or 
answer in a new key, then the first section of the fugue ends with 
the exposition itself. For an illustration of this, see the passage 
from Bach's fugue in C minor, quoted in § 215. Here the 
exposition ends on the first note of the ninth bar, and the follow- 
ing episode, which modulates to E flat, to introduce the next 
entry of the subject, is the beginning of the middle section of the 
fugue. But if the first episode does not modulate away from 
the tonic or dominant key, but leads either to the counter- 
exposition, or to an isolated entry of subject or answer in the 
original key (as in our example {a) § 222) this episode and the 
following entry belong to the first section. To put it in general 
terms — The first section of a fugue extends as far as the end of the 
last entry of the subject or answer In the original keys of tonic and 
dominant. As a natural corollary of this, the second section 
begins with the commencement of the first episode which 
modulates to any other key than that of tonic or dominant. 

294. The length of the middle section varies greatly in 
different fugues. In some it is very short, containing only one 
or two entries of the subject, connected by episodes of only a 
few bars' length. For instance, in the 31st fugue of the 'Wohl- 
temperirtes Clavier,' a somewhat long exposition is followed by 
the counter-exposition in stretto which we quoted in § 270. 
Thus far all belongs to the first section of the fugue, because 
we never get away from the tonic and dominant keys. If the 
student will examine this piece he will see that, out of 70 bars 
which it contains, the exposition and counter-exposition extend 
to bar 44, or nearly two-thirds of the whole. There is only one 
episode in this fugue (bars 44 to 53), followed by an entry of the 
tenor in the key of the subdominant (bars 53 to 58), after which 
the reintroduction of the subject and answer in the tonic key 
(bars 59 to 70) form the final section of the fugue. The whole 
will therefore be analyzed thus — 

First Section — Exposition and Counter-exposition (bars 1--44). 

Middle Section — Episode and entry of subject in subdominant 
(bars 44-5 8). 

Final Section — Return of subject and answer in tonic key : 
Coda (bars 59-70). 

295. The disproportion in the length of the middle and final 
sections of this fugue, as compared with the first section, is 



14c Fugue, [Chap. rx. 

very unusual, and we have purposely given it as an extreme 
instance. More frequently the exposition will be comparatively 
short, and the middle section will contain at least two or three 
entries, or groups of entries, of the subject. We will take 
the 21st fugue of the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier' as a fair 
average specimen of the relative lengths of the three sections. 
The opening bars of this fugue were quoted in § 173. 

296. If the student will take his copy of the fugue, and 
number each bar for reference, he will find the following analysis 
of its form perfectly easy to follow. 

First Section (Bars 1 to 17) — Exposition, including an addi- 
tional entry in the treble (§ 187). 

Middle Section (Bars 17 to 41) — This section contains four 
distinct features : — (a) First episode (bars 17 to 22) ; a sequential 
extension of the last part of the subject, modulating to G minor ; 
(b) First group of middle entries (bars 22 to 30), viz. : subject 
(alto') in G minor ; answer (bass) in C minor, both entries being 
accompanied by the two countersubjects ; (c) Second episode 
(bars 30 to 35) ; a modification of the first, in the first bars 
of which we see a free inversion of bars 19, 20, the change in 
the quaver figure of a fifth to a third, causing the double counter- 
point to be partly in the octave and partly in the thirteenth ; 
(d) Second group of middle entries (bars 35-41). This com- 
mences with a fragmentary entry of the answer in the alto, 
followed by a complete entry of the subject in E flat. 

Final Section (Bars 41 to 48) — Return of subject (alto) in 
the tonic key, the first notes being altered to connect better with 
the key of E flat (bars 41 to 45) ; coda (bars 45 to 48). 

297. The analysis of another fugue from the same work 
will assist us in understanding the construction of the middle 
section. We select No. 34 in E minor. This fugue, of which 
we quoted the subject and countersubject in § 168, has a real 
answer. In such a case, it is impossible to distinguish between 
subject and answer, excepting by observing the distance of 
entry. If a second entry is a fifth above or fourth below 
the first, we know that the first was the subject and the second 
the answer ; if the second were the fourth above or fifth below 
the first, then the first would be the answer and the second 
the subject. But with single entries, or entries at other distances, 
there is no means of distinguishing ; we therefore shall always 
speak of the theme as the subject in doubtful cases. If the 
answer be tonal, as in the fugue last analyzed, the difference 
in its form shows at once which it is ; though even in this 
case we often find a real instead of a tonal answer in the later 
sections of a tonal fugue. 

298. The fugue in E minor is so instructive that we give it in 
full, writing it in open score. We most strongly recommend to 
the student the putting fugues into score ; he will get a far deeper 



Chap. IX.] 



Middle and Final Sections. 



141 



and more accurate insight into their construction by this means 
than by any amount of mere reading or playing them. 

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299. The first section of this fugue contains only the exposi- 
tion. Though the subject is announced in an outer part, we do 
not find here the additional entry spoken of in § 186 ; perhaps 
because of the extent of the subject, which is the longest of any 
in the 'Forty-Eight.' The exposition ends in the 18th bar, and 
is immediately followed by the first episode (bars 18 to 23). As 
this episode does not introduce a new entry in either tonic or 
dominant key, but modulates to the relative major, we see 



chap, i x.j Middle and Final Sections. 147 

that it belongs to the middle section of the fugue, and not 
to the first (§ 293). This first episode is formed from the last 
bar of the subject, continued sequentially in the bass as far as 
bar 20, and accompanied by a figure, evidently founded, as 
regards its rhythm, on the third and fourth bars of the subject, 
and treated by free imitation between treble and alto. The 
second half of the episode contains a new sequence in the 
bass — a modified form of the treble of bar 7 — accompanied by 
the last notes of the subject, given alternately by inverse motion 
in the treble and direct motion in the alto. 

300. The first episode, ending, as we have seen, in G major, 
leads to an entry of the subject in that key (bar 23). It is 
accompanied by the countersubject, which enters in the alto at 
bar 26, and which here for the first time appears below the subject. 
At bar 29 the answer enters in the alto. That it is to be looked 
at as an answer here, is shown by the fact that it is a fourth below 
the preceding entry in the treble. The countersubject is given, 
as usual, to the voice which last had the subject. The bass 
accompanies with a free part, the material of which is taken 
partly from the treble of bars 7 and 8, and partly from the last 
notes of the subject. These two appearances of subject and 
answer form the first group of middle entries, which extends from 
bar 23 to bar 35. 

301. The second episode (bars 35 to 41) is made of the same 
material as the first — mainly the last notes of the subject, but 
with different combinations from the previous ones, and modu- 
lates to B minor. In this key, the next middle entry is made 
by the bass (bar 41), the countersubject now being in the alto, 
and the treble supplying a counterpoint mostly made from the 
last notes of the subject, direct and inverted. It must be 
noticed that all the middle entries after the first are isolated 
entries — that is, each one is divided from the following by an 
episode. 

302. The third episode is the shortest of any (bars 47 to 49). 
It is a transposition a fourth lower (with a slight modification at 
the end) of bars 18 to 20 of the first episode, and leads to an 
entry of the subject (alto) in the original key (bars 49 to 55). 
In a large number of fugues a return to the tonic key is not 
found till we reach the final section of the fugue ; but we 
sometimes, as here, meet with a middle entry in the tonic. 
We see another instance in the third fugue (C sharp major) of 
this work. When an entry of the subject in the tonic is not 
followed by any entry in another key (except possibly the 
dominant), this tonic entry indicates the beginning of the finai 
section of the fugue ; if, as here, another subsequent modulation 
is made, the tonic entry forms part of the middle section. In 
the entry now under notice, the countersubject appears for the 
first and only time in the bass. Though this entry and the 
preceding (in bar 41) bear to one another the relation of tonic 



1 48 Fugue. tcbap. ix. 

and dominant, we have not described the B minor entry as an 
answer, because it is separated from the next by a short episode. 

303. The fourth episode (bars 55 to 59) presents us with the 
old material — the last notes of the subject sequentially treated in 
the treble — with new counterpoints for alto and bass. It modu- 
lates to A minor, in which key the last middle entry is made by 
the treble (bars 59 to 65), the alto having the countersubject. 

304. The fifth, and last episode (bars 65 to 70), like all the 
others, shows the last part of the subject in fresh combinations. 
It leads back to E minor, to introduce the final section of the 
fugue, which will always be in the key of the tonic. The pause 
after the half cadence in bar 70 is rather rare in an instrumental 
fugue, but somewhat more common in a vocal one. 

305. One introductory bar after the pause leads to the final 
entry of the subject (bass) in the tonic key (bars 71 to 77). In 
some fugues all the voices enter with either subject or answer in 
the final section. This is especially the case in fugues which 
have a stretto, a feature which, it will be seen, is wanting in the 
one now under notice. But in many of the fugues of Bach, the 
final section contains, as here, only one entry. This is followed 
by the coda (bars 77 to 86). A coda {Italian = tail) is a passage 
added at the end of a piece of music to bring it to a satisfactory 
conclusion. Sometimes, as here, it will consist of only a few 
bars ; sometimes, as in many symphonies and sonatas, it will be 
of considerable length and importance. The chief feature of the 
present coda is the ornamented dominant pedal (bars 78 to 81); 
we also, quite exceptionally, find a second pause (bar 83), here on 
the last inversion of a dominant minor ninth. 

306. Another point of importance is illustrated in this coda. 
In the 83rd and last bars will be seen the introduction of an 
additional voice. This is often met with at the conclusion 
of a fugue. Out of the 48 fugues in the ' Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier' we find such additional parts in sixteen, mostly in 
approaching the final cadence, but occasionally (e.g., in fugues 
35 and 39) earlier in the coda. Let the student examine, as 
striking examples of this procedure, the last bars of the fugues in 
A minor (No. 20) and C sharp major (No. 27). 

307. We will now tabulate, for future use, the entries of the 
subject in the fugue just analyzed, noting the succession of keys, 
and the voice to which each entry is given. 

I. Exposition. 

1. Subject (treble) — bar 1. E minor. 

2. Answer (alto) — bar 6. B minor. 

3. Subject (bass) — bar 12. E minor. 

II. Middle Section. 

4. Subject (treble) — bar 23. G major. 

5. Answer (alto) — bar 29. D major. 



Chap. 1X0 



Middle and Final Sections. 



149 



6. Subject (bass) — bar 42. B minor 

7. Subject (alto) — bar 49. E minor. 

8. Subject (treble) — bar 59. A minor. 

III. Final Section. 

9. Subject (bass) — bar 71. E minor. 

It will be seen that no two consecutive entries are for the same 
voice, or in the same key. 

308. Before proceeding to lay down any general principles, we 
will analyze another fugue from the same work, constructed on a 
different plan, and illustrating several points not shown in the 
fugue in E minor. 

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This splendid fugue — one of the most perfect of the * Forty- 
Eight' — is a remarkable example of Bach's power of letting 
art conceal art. There is not one which flows more naturally 
and unconstrainedly, and yet there is not one which is fuller of 
scientific device. This will appear from our analysis. 

309. Let us first look at the subject. We see here an 
exception to the general rule given in § 29, that with a downward 
leap of a fifth the first note will be dominant, and the second 
tonic. The subject begins with a leap from tonic to sub- 
dominant, and consequently takes a real answer. Had D been 
a dominant, the key of the fugue would have been G, and the 
answer 



3 



As C sharp is not used in the subject, the key is doubtful at first , 
in such cases the answer always decides the point. 

310. As Bach intends the fugue to contain a large amount of 
close imitation and stretto, there is no regular countersubject 
(§ 176); but instead of this, the last half of the subject is 
ingeniously made to serve as a counterpoint to the first half. 



chap ix.] Middle and Final Sections. 153 

against which it is mostly employed in double counterpoint in the 
tenth (compare bar 3 with bars 6, 10, 21, etc.). The figure 



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cannot be called a countersubject because it is not contrasted 
with, but derived from the subject. We shall see that it forms 
the germ of all the episodes. In the fourth bar it is already used 
in imitation to make a codetta. 

311. The exposition foreshadows the treatment by stretto 
which Bach intends ; for the entry of the bass in bar 6 is 
half a bar sooner than its regular place. The exposition ends 
at the 7th bar, and the first episode is made from the figure just 
quoted, by close imitation, in all the voices at one crotchet's 
distance. 

312. As the following entry of the subject (bar 10) is in 
E minor, we should expect the episode to modulate to that 
key. Bach, however, does not do this, but makes his modulation 
on the first notes of the subject itself. As the original keys ot 
tonic and dominant are not quitted till after the episode, we 
include this in the first section of the fugue, and consider the 
middle section to begin in bar 10. 

313. The first group of middle entries, bars 10 to 13 — 
subject (alto), answer (treble) — is followed by the second episode, 
only one bar in length. We count this as an episode because it 
effects a modulation from B minor to A. At bar 14 the first 
stretto is introduced. It is for two voices only, in the fourth 
above, and at a distance of half a bar. It is seldom that so early 
a return is made to the tonic key ; but it may be said here, that 
in fugues containing much stretto, we often find a much greater 
prevalence of the original keys, and less modulation, than in 
fugues in which there is no close imitation. Nos. 1 and 4 of the 
1 Wohltemperirtes Clavier ' are illustrations of this. 

314. In the third episode (bars 16-21) we see the figure of 
the second, a sequential prolongation of the first, treated by close 
imitation in all the voices. It leads to the second stretto (bars 21 
to 23). We said in § 251 that when there were several stretti, 
their interest should gradually increase. We see this illustrated 
here. Three voices now take part in it ; the treble enters one bar 
after the tenor, and the alto half a bar after the treble. The 
intervals of entry (fifth and octave) are again regular. 

315. Bar 24, though not containing subject or answer, cannot 
be considered as episode, because it does not modulate to a fresh 
key, but introduces an entry which clearly belongs to the preceding 
group, being the regular answer to the last preceding entry — the 
subject in bar 22. We therefore regard bar 24 as a codetta, 
similar to that so often seen in an exposition. 



154 Fugue. [Chap, ix 

316. At bar 27 the third stretto is introduced. The interest 
is here heightened by bringing in the imitations at a closer 
distance — one crotchet instead of half a bar. Variety is also 
obtained by introducing all the voices in the octave. We have 
marked the entries with ' A ' instead of ' S,' because the G natural 
of the tenor in the 28th bar proves the key of the music to be D. 
The ' A — ? ' in the alto of the same bar indicates an incomplete 
entry. Another, similarly marked, will be seen in bar 44. 

317. Another series of close imitations will be found in 
the fourth episode (bars 29 to 33). This leads to the fourth 
middle entry — another stretto for three voices, each a sixth 
above the preceding, and at a crotchet's distance. This stretto 
is an advance upon the preceding, inasmuch as now all the 
three voices complete the subject. 

318. The fifth and last episode leads to the final section 
of the fugue, in which the subject is once more introduced 
in the tonic key (bar 40). It is now accompanied with simul- 
taneous double counterpoint in the tenth and octave (compare 
bar 40 with bar 3). The entry of the answer at bar 43, with 
chromatic alterations, leads to the last and closest stretto. This 
is the stretto maestrale, already quoted and described in § 278, 
and it is followed by a short coda, in which the figure of imitation, 
so often referred to, is maintained to the very last note. 

319. It will be seen that this fugue differs in many important 
respects from the fugue in E minor, and nearly every leading 
feature of a fugue which is not shown in the one is illustrated by 
the other. One point of difference is that in the former there 
are scarcely any rests ; all the voices are almost continuously 
occupied. In the fugue in D, on the other hand, we find not 
only one, but in bar 16 two voices resting at once. It is 
generally better to give occasional rests to some of the voices. 
After such a rest, the voice that has been silent should enter with 
the subject, or with some decided feature of the counterpoint (see 
the entries in bars 17 and 18), and not drop in, as it were, inci- 
dentally, and without anything particular to say. 

320. Another point to notice in this fugue is that nearly all 
the entries of the subject are preceded by a rest. That this is 
not absolutely necessary was seen from the fugue in E minor, in 
which very few of the entries are so approached ; but it is 
nevertheless preferable as marking the entrance of the subject 
more clearly. Where this cannot well be managed, the next 
best thing is to approach the entry by a leap, as in the fugue 
in D, bars 27, 33, and 43. 

321. In bars 16, 20, and 27 of the fugue in D will be seen full 
cadences, and at bars 10, 33, and 44, inverted cadences. The 
latter are very common, the former are rarer. It must be 
remembered that when a full cadence is employed in a fugue, 
the music must never come to a standstill ; the last note of 
the cadence must always be a starting point for a new entry, 



chap, ix.] Middle and Final Sections. 155 

either of the subject (as at bar 27) or of some important figure 01 
.counterpoint (as at bars 16 and 20). Occasionally in old fugues, 
we meet with a full close in some related key just before the final 
stretto ; but this is not to be recommended. 

322. To what keys, and in what order, is it advisable to 
modulate in the middle section of a fugue ? To this important 
question it is not possible to give more than a general answer. 
The rule given by the old theorists was that the modulations in a 
fugue should be confined to the nearly related keys. We quote 
Cherubini's remarks on this subject : — 

" When a fugue is in a major key, the key into which we should modulate 
first is that of the dominant with its major third', then into the sixth -the 
relative minor key of the principal key ; after that into the major key of the 
subdominant, to the minor key of the second, and to the mediant, also minor ; 
and then return to the key of the dominant, in order to proceed to the 
conclusion, which should be in the principal key. 

"It is permitted in the course of a fugue in a major key to change the 
principal key into the minor ; but this permutation should be employed 
only for a few moments, and merely to bring in a suspension on the dominant, 
in order afterwards to attack the principal major key. 

' ' When a fugue is in a minor key, the first modulation is into the mediant 
tnajor key, which is the relative major of the principal key ; then we modulate 
in turn into the dominant ntinor key, into the sixth major key, into the 
subdominant minor key, and into the seventh major key ; and lastly from 
one of these keys return to the principal key." 

323. We have quoted Cherubini somewhat fully, because it is 
well that students who are working for an examination should 
know what the old rules are ; but when we come to apply to 
them the test of Bach's practice, we find that they will not hold 
water for a moment. In the whole of the ' Forty-Eight,' there is 
not one single fugue in which the order of modulation prescribed 
by Cherubini is observed. What is even more to the point — in 
the ' Art of Fugue,' a work written by Bach, to show the proper 
method of fugal construction, we also find no fugue written on 
Cherubini's plan. 

324. Besides this, we find that Bach, though he generally 
keeps within the circle of nearly-related keys, has no hesitation 
about going into unrelated keys when he has a mind to. No. 4 
of the ' Art of Fugue,' the key of which is D minor, contains a 
modulation to B minor. In the fugue in E minor (No. 10 of the 
' Forty-Eight ') there is at bar 30 an entry of the subject in 
D minor ; and in the fugue in A flat (No. 41 of the same work), 
we see at bar 32 an entry in E flat minor. The great organ fugue 
in D contains entries in C sharp minor and E major, and the 
organ fugue in B minor has an entry in C sharp minor. It is 
quite clear, either that Bach did not know how to write fugues 
properly, or that the old rules need altering. Of course we choose 
the latter alternative. 

325. The rules as to the course of modulation and the 
middle entries in fugues which we deduce from Bach's works, 
are as follows : — 

I. It is best in general to keep within the circle of nearly- 



i5° Fugue. [Chap. ix. 

-elated keys, but an entry in an unrelated key is occasionally 
possible, if such key be naturally introduced, and not (to use 
Mozart's immortal phrase) " pulled in by the hair of its head." 

II. A middle entry may either be isolated — that is a single 
appearance of subject or answer in one voice ; or there may be a 
group of entries, two or more voices in succession giving subject 
or answer. In the latter case it is best, except in a close stretto 
(see bars 44, 45, of the fugue in § 308), that the entries should be 
at the distance of a fourth, fifth, or octave. 

III. No two successive groups of entries should have the 
same order of voices. 

IV. No two groups of middle entries should be in the same 
key, nor should the same voice have subject or answer twice in 
succession. 

326. This last rule is not always strictly observed. A 
remarkable exception will be seen in the 19th fugue of the 
1 Wohltemperirtes Clavier,' where the bass gives the subject in 
bar 4, and the answer immediately after in bar 6. Another 
example will be seen in the fourth fugue of the same work, 
where at bars 19 and 22 there are two consecutive entries of 
the subject in the tenor. The rule is, nevertheless, a good one, 
and the student will do well to adhere to it carefully. 

327. It is not necessary that all the voices should take part in 
a group of middle entries. In a two-part fugue it will of course 
be needful, but in one with more than two voices, one at least 
may rest, if desired. This, in fact, is often expedient, for the 
sake of obtaining the contrast of thinner and fuller harmony. 
For an example, see No. 15 of the ' Forty-Eight,' bars 34 to 46, 
and 51 to 55. In the final section of a fugue, which always 
begins with the last return of the original key, it is imperative 
that all the voices be engaged, though it is not necessary that all 
should have subject or answer. If, however, the fugue contains 
stretti, it is best that all the voices take part in the final stretto, 
which should also be the closest. 

328. We have already seen that there is no fixed number of 
groups of middle entries, which may vary from one or two to five 
or six, or even more. Neither is there any rule as to the order of 
voices for these middle entries, except in so far as concerns the 
point referred to in Rule III., § 325. It must not be forgotten 
that if stretti are used, their interest should always be cumulative. 

329. When a pedal point (either dominant or tonic) is met 
with in a fugue, it is almost always in the final section. 
Occasionally we find a pedal earlier in a fugue, as, for instance, 
in No. 35 of the 'Wohltemperirtes Clavier,' and in the choral 
fugue, " For holy blood must be " in Schumann's ' Paradise and 
the Peri.' Such cases are, however, exceptional, and the student, 
if he wishes to use a pedal point, had better reserve it for the 
final section, as it is seen in the fugue in E minor in § 298. In 
a fugue containing stretti, the last is often made upon a pedal 



Chap. IX.] 



Middle and Final Sections. 



'57 



which sometimes in this case is an additional voice, as in fugue 20 
Of the ' Forty- Eight,' bars 83 to 87. 

330. A few general principles will conclude this part of our 
subject. We have already (§ 321) spoken of the necessity of 
continuity in fugal writing. This necessity will be best shown 
by quoting a passage from Mozart's ' Musical Joke,' written as a 
burlesque of unskilful composers. This work is full of the most 
ludicrous mistakes in composition, intentionally introduced. 
Consecutives, passing notes quitted by leap, and similar atrocities, 
abound in it, but treated so skilfully that the joke is always 
perceptible. In the finale, Mozart introduces a little bit of 
fugue, thus — 



Violino imo. 



Violino 2do. 



Viola. 



fe — 


1 — 1 


1 




































f 


r r r r 


f^Z 

(W: L 2 fg 


1 p 


f rr p 


~1 m F~ 


~s — 

H — 


-1 — 


LLLf 

pr *r 1 






1 1 1 1 — 


r 









^z: 



*~ T 



S 



J=t 



22: 



E=* 



— m^^- rr 



ff=== 



|-n 


— pp- 


-^e- 


-•r- 


T 


*>- 


'"X 


-1 




^ — t= 


■ 1 r 





— 


=P- 


— ^ 






~ 1 
1 — 


_Lj — 


1 

-1 — 


l ■ 


■ t 

f 


-J 

1 


1 

49- 
=3= 


f- 


Hi* r 


-1 — ' — 




^^ 


1 — 1 


-p-* — 

-i 1 


— 1 — 


— r= — 



The student will see that there is here a subject, a counter 
subject, and a regular exposition; and yet how ludicrous the 



<5* 



Fugue. 



LChap. IX. 



effect of the whole is ! This is because of the want of 
continuity ; the piece is chopped up by the full cadences into 
lengths of four bars each. A full cadence in a fugue (which 
should in all cases be sparingly used) must always be a point 
of departure for some new entry, if not of the subject, at all 
events for some important feature of counterpoint. We have 
referred to this above, but we repeat it as a point of vital 
importance in fugal writing, which will be enforced by the 
example just given. 

331. We saw in the fugue in D (§ 308) the expediency of 
occasional rests in the voices (§ 319). After a rest, the voice 
which has been silent may enter on any part of the bar ; but it 
should always end before a rest, on an accented beat. 

332. One final point remains to be noticed. It has several 
times been incidentally said that a fugue is essentially a. polyphonic 
composition. It is therefore of great importance that each voice 
should preserve its individuality. Passages for two parts in thirds 
or sixths, though not absolutely prohibited, should be sparingly 
used, and, in any case, not for long together. Passages in which 
a subject is accompanied by plain chords are also seldom 
advisable, though they are occasionally to be used, even with 
good effect, as in the following example — 



J. S. Bach. Wohltemperirtes Clavier, Fugue 18. 




ml — 1 L & 



=1 — ha — k* — =1— ha — 3- 



u ' 1 C 1 1 p 



l» 1 



1 U I 



■&=*- 



1 U y 



i r ft r y 



L g Eg - 



i?JE£Eg 



3zzr 



The student will do well in his attempts at fugue to keep to the 
strictly contrapuntal style. 

333. The student may now begin the composition of a 
complete fugue. To show him how to set to work, we shall 
write three fugues for him, one in two parts, one in three, and 
one in four. We will take the subject we wrote in § 254 to 
illustrate stretto, as this will give us the opportunity of intro- 
ducing several stretti at different intervals and distances. The 
student had better begin by writing a few two-part fugues, as 
these are easier than those with three or four voices. He 
must remember not to introduce any progressions between the 
voices which would not be allowed in free two-part counterpoint. 
He should also always bear in mind the harmonic progressions 
indicated by the outline harmony. 



Chap. IX. 



Middle and Final Sections. 



*59 



334. The first thing to do is to lay out clearly in the mind the 
general plan of the fugue. We know that the first and the final 
sections will be in the keys of the tonic and dominant ; but we 
ought also to decide on the keys and order of the middle entries, 
and not start on our journey like Abraham, not knowing whither 
we go, and trusting to luck to come out somewhere. As we do 
not intend any of our specimen fugues to be very long, we will 
content ourselves for the one in two parts with two groups of 
middle entries — one in A minor and the other in F major. The 
outline of the fugue will therefore take the following form : — 

(1) Exposition, to which, as there are only two voices, we shall 
add a counter-exposition. 

(2) First episode, modulating to A minor. 

(3) First middle group of entries in A minor, with first stretto. 

(4) Second episode, modulating to F. 

(5) Second middle group of entries in F, with closer stretto. 

(6) Third episode, modulating back to C. 

(7) Final section of fugue; entries in C, with closest stretto. 

335. Some such outline as this ought to be clearly in the 
student's mind before he begins to write. We now give the 
complete fugue. 




Allegro. 



m 



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B 



r g rr h e 



rrr? 



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( if — ' 


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1 r r r 1 r r r Cr 


m -0- ■*- T~-*- 

1 i \ u = 


t5 1 




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13 



14 



15 



16 



too 



Fugue. 



[Chap. IX 



"I Middle Section. 




( J 




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Episode 



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« 1 1 1 pa 


Final Section. 




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45 



Chap, ix.] Middle and Final Sections. 161 

The rule given in § 325 that two successive entries should not be 
in the same voice does not apply to two-part fugues ; for if it did, 
the same voice would have either subject or answer mostly all 
through a fugue. We shall therefore modify the rule in this case, 
and say that in two-part fugue " the same voice should not have 
subject or answer twice in succession, unless separated by an 
episode." 

336. We have written a countersubject against the answer 
(bars 5 to 9), but shall be unable to make much use of it in 
the middle and final entries, because of the stretti , for the 
countersubject must evidently be discontinued when the voice 
that is giving it has to take up the subject or answer. But 
fragments of it will be seen in bars 26 and 34. 

337. In the counter-exposition (bais 10 to 18) the treble 
which first had the subject leads with the answer, and the 
bass replies with the subject. The first episode (bars 18 to 21) 
is made from the inversion of the last three notes of the subject, 
treated sequentially by the treble, and imitated in the fourth below 
by the bass. 

338. The first group of middle entries (bars 22 to 28) is led 
by the answer, and imitated in the octave, also by the answer, at 
two bars' distance. The leading voice is here able to complete 
the answer. The second episode is founded on the fourth 
bar of the subject, imitated in the fourth above ; it will be 
remembered that the imitation in the first episode was in the 
fourth below. This second episode is only two bars in length. 

339. In the next group of middle entries (bars 30 to 35), the 
subject in the bass is followed in the regular interval by the 
answer at one bar's distance. The third episode is a sequential 
treatment by the treble of an ornamented form of the counter- 
subject in bar 8, imitated in the fifth below by the bass. The 
final section of the fugue contains the closest stretto (bars 40 to 
45) at half a bar's distance, the answer being lengthened by the 
repetition in bar 43 of half a bar, to bring the piece to a 
satisfactory close. 

340. We will now write a three-part fugue, and for the sake of 
variety will take the answer of the last fugue as our subject. As 
this answer was in the key of the tonic, it follows that the present 
answer will be in the key of the dominant, and will consequently 
be identical with the subject of the last fugue. We will write an 
entirely new countersubject — this time, for a change, in double 
counterpoint in the twelfth, and will begin the fugue with the 
middle voice, so as to show the countersubject in both positions 
in the exposition. Our plan of modulation shall be the same as 
in the last fugue, with middle entries in A minor and F, and each 
group of entries after the exposition shall contain a stretto. 



l62 



Fugue. 



ICliap. IX. 



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— 


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1 ' 1 1 


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— 5 — 




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6 




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^ 17 18 U->^ 

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Episode 3. 



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1 I 



164 



Fugue 



[Chap. IX 



a Final Section. 
pfl (2 






...... -r . . f _ r 




4^—*-^ 


gi 1 1 


-1 1 1 ==— 


1 ! ^— -1 — 


— — g r - 
«» 


rtti — ■p 1 1 


if r r r " 


,f^f 


— -m- ^--m- m 


,M- J — t ^ J 


j — r— 1 — ' — 


J *!??_J ! |J =_J j 


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42 




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341. After the explanations given of the last fugue, this will 
need but few remarks. Note that in all the stretti the last voice 
to enter always has the subject or answer complete (§ 252). 
Observe also, as showing how much variety is possible in a 
subject well adapted for the purpose, that none of the stretti 
here given are identical with those in three parts made from 
the same subject in §§ 264, 265. The incomplete entries are, as 

before, indicated by S ? Where the entries are at irregular 

distances, they are marked with S, whether they resemble subject 
or answer. 

342. Now let us look at the episodes. The first is made 
from the sequential inversion in the bass (bars 13 to 16) of the 
last notes of the subject, accompanied by sequential imitations in 
treble and alto of a variation of bar 4 of the subject, by direct 
motion. The second (bars 25 to 30) is a canon in the fourth 
below between treble and bass, founded on the first part of 
the countersubject, and accompanied by a florid counterpoint 
in quavers for the alto. The third (bars 36 to 40) is another 
piece of canonic imitation between treble and bass, now at 
half a bar's distance, made from the beginning of the answer 
in a varied form, while the alto has partial imitation (mostly 
rhythmic) of the first notes of the subject. Note in bar 43 the 
transient modulation to the subdominant, to avoid the awkward 
progression of a tritone in the alto and bass. 

343. For our last illustration we write a four-part fugue. We 
take the first half only of our subject, so as to make the piece 



Chap. IX.] 



Middle and Final Sections. 



t6 5 



more concise. A short subject is frequently advisable with a 
larger number of parts ; with a longer subject there is often 
danger of the fugue becoming straggling and tedious. As we 
intend to combine the theme with itself in stretto as much 
as we can, we will write no countersubject (§ 176). We will 
also i-ntroduce some points not illustrated in the preceding fugues. 
We will make a larger number of modulations, giving middle 
entries in G, A minor, D minor, F, and E minor (all the nearly 
related keys) before we reach the final section of the fugue. 



Allegro. 
-< S i 


1 


, • — 




JL *fr p 9 J ~J *' !* g r ~^ — J •* p r~ ' *" ■* r p 5 p ■ w 


Vm - = — 


1 * 


•Ml 1 1 1 ==—*^ ^ 


1 1 i, M 


P r 5 1 f — r — f- 


. r *-i 


81 4 — 

^4 - 1 = 




— ! E p 1 E 1 r 1 


— W- 


iPli-4 

ftM-4 








!w_ 4 

S 1 2 




3 4 





ff ;: -. H -: -<■==*= 


rrfJi 


1 jryi ^ =a 


^— r M-p 1 — «J *^ 

Codetta. ,. — ^ 


«* * * r 


In! 1 1 1 1 j 

H - 1 - 1 




s 

_p p — -1 


m 




1 1 i - 1 


^5 6 7 




8 



Middle Section. 




i66 



Fugue. 



[Chap. IX. 



gj/H crcccr l - 1 & r CEfaW 



=ft=P= 



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-r— t 



§ 



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H — p — = 


A 

P" 


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— i — i 


rt^-^r-^ 


S 

ha e **-p— 


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Pffl^ 


=^^= 


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T— »— &— 


Ini ! ! =t= 
WH" — ffrr 


-1 1 1 != 


w n 

~F — Wf 


Jg -t- 




1 k L_ : 


J£l — | 1 j ~ 


u-i-T r 1 r- 


Hjj; 


dg J 


=ta= 


it 


S (inverted.) 


^ 17 


18 


19 






20 


J 



4 J B r f — H ^— !• — r- 


^p-J — i — J «H j r r- 


frb * J * | 1 =-* f— r- j— 

ll-H-jjp - ^ — p y^ g r — p^, m 


Lj - — J * **fl J UT ■ 




Episode 2. 

to p j^,- p a — f. 1 = 


- i 


— r Liiu t L— 


1 j 


i*i * - 


ft ffp rt|i«i » , "i 


^ f r r r — J J J j *3-j- 

^ ' ' 22 23 


1 " ^ L r i* ^H 




r » r i r r r^=i 



Chap. IX.] 



Middle and Final Sections. 



167 



ffT-r-^T- r I f "Cr>r i^^ ^^ 



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Fugue. 



[Chap. IX. 



Final Section. 




flrrrrivrr j r cjm-|r 1 



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59 



Chap. IX.) 



Middle and Final Sections. 



169 



\ 1 L 



m m — g-g-j-jj—g — r f--r 




344. In bars 5 to 7 we have introduced a codetta. There 
was no necessity for this, as the tenor could perfectly well enter 
with the subject in bar 5 ; but, as Bach frequently has such 
a codetta in his fugues, we have written this to show how to 
manage it, if it is desired. The first episode (bars 12 to 16) 
is made by inverting the codetta in the tenor and bass, and 
adding a sequential counterpoint in quavers for the treble. 
The first group of middle entries (bars 17 to 22) shows the 
first (partial) stretto, the bass entering half a bar before the 
regular time with the inverted subject. Here a modulation from 
G to A minor is made during the entries, instead of (as is more 
usual) during the episode. 

345. The second and shortest episode is made from the 
beginning of the inverted subject in the treble, with a continuation 
freely imitated by direct and inverse motion in the alto and bass. 
Both first and second episodes are for three voices only. 

346. The second group of middle entries, in the keys of A 
minor and D minor, gives a stretto at one bar's distance in all the 
parts — the alto entry being incomplete. It leads to the third 
episode, the most elaborate of the three (bars 30 to 35). It is 
a short canon 4 in 2, at one bar's distance, by contrary motion, 
and with inversion of the voices, founded on the first notes 
of the subject with a counterpoint of quavers. The third group 
of middle entries (bars 35 to 43) is again a stretto at one bar's 
distance ; but it differs from the last, inasmuch as now all the 
voices have the subject complete. At bar 41 is a modulation 
to E minor, in which key a partial stretto, for alto and tenor only, 
at half a bar's distance is seen. The last short episode (bars 43 
to 46) founded on a sequential continuation of the last notes 
of the subject, leads to the final section of the fugue. 

347. This final section (bars 46 to 63) is far more extended 
than in the other two fugues. It begins with a stretto maestrale 
(§ 277), led by the treble, each succeeding voice entering at 
half a bar's distance, and a fourth below the preceding. At bars 
51 to 57 a pedal point is introduced, with four voices above it 
(§ 329). Here there is a second stretto maestrale, the order of 



r7o Fugue. [Chap. ix. 

entry of the voices being now reversed, and the bass leading. The 
pedal is continued over a passage of free imitation founded on 
the treble of bar 35 ; and at bar 58 is a coda, with a final entry of 
the subject in tenths for treble and tenor, imitated by alto and 
bass in tenths in the following bar. 

348. From the full analysis of the way in which we have 
written these three fugues, the student will probably learn as much 
as is possible to teach in a book as to fugal construction. More 
can be learned by analysis than in any other way. For this 
reason we shall follow this book by a companion volume on 
Fugal Analysis, which will contain a collection of some of the 
finest fugues ever written put into score and fully annotated. 
There is not room in this volume for a sufficient number of 
examples to illustrate the matter thoroughly. But mere analysis 
will not of itself suffice : the student must practise for himself, 
writing each separate part of a fugue (exposition, episode, stretto, 
&c.) till he has xcquired fluency. Nothing but natural aptitude, 
aided by a great deal of study and hard work, will ever make 
a good fugue writer. 



Chap X.J 



FUGHETTA AND FUGATO. 



171 



CHAPTER X. 

FUGHETTA AND FUGATO 

349. In the preceding chapters of this, volume we have 
explained the construction of the most common kind of fugue — 
that with only one subject. Before proceeding to treat of 
fugues with more than one subject, fugues on a choral, or 
fugues with free accompaniment, there are two other varieties 
of fugal writing with which this is the most suitable place to deal. 
These are the Fughetta and the Fugato. 

350. The word " P'ughetta " is the Italian diminutive of 
" Fuga," and merely means " a little fugue." It is a term of 
somewhat vague application ; and it is impossible to lay down a 
hard and fast. line of distinction between fughetta and fugue. For 
example, among Bach's works for the Clavier, we find a so-called 
1 Fughetta ' in E minor, beginning 



which is a regularly developed fugue, extending to 105 bars, with 
a long middle section. In its number of bars it exceeds 46 of 
the 48 fugues in the ' Wohltemperirtes Clavier.' This is an 
exceptional case ; but we refer to it to show the vagueness with 
which the term is sometimes applied. 

351. In the form most frequently met with, a fughetta is an 
abridged fugue, and is almost always a complete movement in 
itself. It contains a regular exposition ; but the middle section 
will have at most not more than one group of middle entries, and 
in many instances it is omitted altogether. In such cases the 
exposition is followed either by an episode leading to the final 
entry of the subject in the tonic key, or this final entry may 
follow the exposition immediately, without any episode whatever. 

352. These variations in fughetta form will be most clearly 
shown by examples. We first give an illustration by Bach of 
the longer fughetta, containing the regular three sections of a 
fugue, though all are on a small scale. 

J. S. Bach. Fughetta in D minor. 



§ 



¥W 



m 



5* 



1 » 



>f 



^^ 



s 



172 



Fugue 







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34 35 36 37 38 



Cbap. X.] 



FUGHETTA AND FUGATO. 
Final Section. 



'7.3 






As the fugue is for only three voices, and contains no crossing of 
parts which might render it difficult to follow, we give it, to save 
space, on two staves. The student will by this time be sufficiently 
accustomed to analysis of fugues to render it superfluous for us to 
mark, as hitherto, the entries of the subject. 

353. An unusual point in the exposition of this fughetta is, 
that the third voice enters with the answer instead of the subject. 
The group of middle entries appears to commence with the 
subject in the tonic key; but the following reply at bar 25 
shows that the entry in bar 20 is really the answer to the 
subject in the key of G minor. Further entries in the same 
key, now at the octave, are seen at bars 33 and 37, after which, 
without a second episode, the final section, containing two entries 
of the subject succeeded by a coda, follows immediately. This 
fughetta is really a complete fugue, much condensed — a sort of 
" Liebig's extract " of fugue. 



•74 



Fugue. 



[Chap. X. 



354. An interesting fughetta of a different kind, also by Bach, 
is that in F. 



It will be seen that the subject is identical with that of the fugue 
in A flat, No. 41 of the ' Forty-Eight ' ; and if the two pieces 
are compared, it will be found that, except as regards key, they 
are exactly the same down to the 24th bar, where the 
fughetta ends. The latter is the earlier version, and it contains 
a complete exposition, an episode of four bars — no middle section 
at all — but a large final section with entries for all the voices, 
which, when Bach rewrote the fugue for the ' Wohltemperirtes 
Clavier,' was made to do duty as a counter-exposition. If the 
student will read the first half of the A flat fugue, he will see the 
fughetta complete ; there is therefore no occasion to quote it. 

355. Our next example, by Handel, is different in form. 

Handel. U'recht Te Deum. 



th»- 



m 



i=t 



l 



S3 



T=2 



M* g 



?=*=% 



T-P- 



a*=Sfc 



1 



-w~r 



1*3=^ 



]^_^_L 



t=q£=t 



t=X=± 



1 1 



±R 



ifc 



t=t 




&=F 



:ff=p: 



r m I m-f 



B 



t=t 



1^ 



r r ^rM ^g gg^H 




ppe^ 



Jht 



10 



11 



Cljap. X.i 



FUG H ETTA AND FUGATO. 



'75 




This fughetta is for five voices. It begins like a close fugue 
(§ 279); and it will be seen that at the entry of the fifth voice 
(tenor), in bar 5, the subject is varied. Handel's fugues are 
usually freer than Bach's. There is no episode at all, but there 
is a fragmentary group of middle entries (bars 7 to 10). This 
embryo middle section, if we may so term it, is followed by a 
final entry of the subject in the tonic key (bar 12), and a short 
coda completes the movement. 

356. Another variety of the fughetta form is that which 
consists merely of a complete exposition, followed by one final 
entry of the subject by the voice that first led. A very neat 
specimen of this variety is the following, taken from one of 
Mozart's Masses. 

Mozart. Mass in F, No. 6. 



m 



1Z=W 



r m m i 



±s 



E 



fee 




ijb 



Fugue. 



[Chap. x. 



l ^aA^ 



±=t 



^33g 



■■ ki!.. g - & 5 



^ 



P^: 



s 






«= 



sr^ iir~ 



^p 




It will be seen that here the final entry is in stretto at close 
distance of time for all the voices ; but in this form it is not 
necessary to observe the rule (§ 252) that the last voice that 
enters must complete the subject. Here the tenor in bars 10 
and 1 1 gives the subject in an abridged and slightly varied form. 

357. Sometimes, after a complete exposition, the final entry 
will only be fragmentary, and will be followed by a coda. 



fcfct 



1 I p g 



Beethoven. Mass in C. 



m^^^mz-^z 



i 



*- TTF-J =3 



S^ 



:£S5=t 



K* 



j£-^g£. 



JtW- 



B 



P 



fei 



sS 



FUG H ETTA AND FUGATO 





^-8-S ♦ 










«a- 1 p 






-«>- 


-mh 






m m- ■ jg 


-P- f 






MK ^ 


m 
1 


f- 




(•■- « ■ f 


. P |. r 






Inl fl 8 

£*** 


-0L 

1 .. 






» | 1 


n ] g 






^ 13 


14 






_£_r — L — 

15 


JL-J ' 

16 







It is somewhat unusual for the first voice to leave off on the 
entry of the third, as here at bar 5 ; generally (and preferably) 
it continues, as in our other examples, with a free counterpoint. 
The final entry (bar 10) is only partial, not more than the first 
half of the subject being given by the treble ; from the eleventh 
bar, the polyphonic style is abandoned, and in the coda all the 
voices move together in plain chords. 

358. The word Fugato simply means " fugued," and is 
applied to passages written in the fugal style — that is to say, 
in which the same subject is introduced successively in the 
different voices — but in which the entries are not at the regular 



i 7 8 



Fugue. 



[Chap. X. 



interval of subject and answer, or, if they are, their employment 
is only incidental. Passages of imitation, provided that all the 
voices take part in them, will very often be also fugato passages ; 
but in general in such cases the voices will enter in succession, 
the first voice being either unaccompanied by any harmony at all, 
or only accompanied by instruments, and not by any other voices. 
Such passages are often found in pieces not otherwise in fugal 
form. 

359. In consequence of the freedom allowed in fugato, it is 
quite impossible to give any fixed rules for its construction. Its 
nature will be best understood by the examination of specimens 
by different composers, and in various styles. Our first example 
will be by Bach. 

Bach. ' Matthaus Passion.' 




m j jut ^ i iJ J j j J 1 iiJTTJ J J UJ j j j j J 




In this passage we omit the semiquaver accompaniment in the 



Coap. X.] 



FUG H ETTA AND FUGATO. 



I 79 



bass, which is to some extent independent of the voices ; the 
bare fourths in the sixth and seventh bars are filled up by 
the instrumental part. We see here that, though the interval of 
entry of the voices is quite regular, it is not that of fugue 
subject and answer as regards the third and fourth voices ; 
we have here therefore a passage of fugato. 

360. The following well-known extract from the ' Creation ' is 
given in short score to save space, and the independent orchestral 
accompaniment is omitted. 

Haydn. ' Creation. 



P 



s 



m 



F=fi n 



Jl*_ 



* ~*J 



I WJ 



i^ 



m 



1 



M? j j 



t^ 




This example is somewhat similar to our last ; but while the first 
three entries are at regular distances — each a fifth above the 
preceding — the treble is only a fourth above the alto. 

361. Similar passages to these are of frequent occurrence. 
As fine examples may be mentioned, the passage in the 
Offertorium of Mozart's ' Requiem ' to the words " ne absorbent 
eas tariarus, ne cadant i?i obscurum" and the beginning of the 
allegro of the chorus, " Praise ye Jehovah's goodness " in 
Beethoven's ' Mount of Olives.' We merely refer to these, 
and prefer to quote for our next illustration a fugato of a 
totally different style — the opening bars of the slow movement 
of Beethoven's first symphony. We condense the orchestral 
score on two staves. 

Beethoven. 1st Symphony. 



1 



m 



o* 



-jL±JTLrc 




P 



pp* 



is 



CfiJ 



i8o 



Fugue. 



iChap. x. 




i >JSB Jji B 



i 



s 



p m 



rm *~st$ 




Although the commencement of this passage looks at first like 
the subject and answer of a fugue, a moment's examination of 
the counterpoint accompanying the answer will show that we have 
here only fugato. The rhythm of subject and counterpoint are 
identical, and the style of the whole passage is distinctly homo- 
phonic rather than polyphonic. After the end of our extract, 
every attempt at imitation is abandoned. 

362. We conclude this chapter with two more modern 
examples. 

Mendelssohn. ' Elijah. 



DH :ff_ 


— Lf- 


f— P— 


-L. 

1 T 




- j J 1 

r ' ' 




In this passage the small notes on the bass staff indicate the real 
bass of the harmony, which is given to the orchestra. It will be 
seen that here no two consecutive entries are at the same distance 
of interval. 

363. In our last illustration, 

, Mackenzie. ' The Rose of Sharon. 



fegg 



Chorus 




Basses of orchestra. 



^ 



-r-w 



r | J - JOT 



Chan. X. 



FUGHETTA AND FtTGATO. 




the basses of the orchestra have so independent a part that it is 
needful to write it on a separate staff. Here we have an example 
of the modern free treatment of the contrapuntal style. Not only 
the interval of entry, but the form of the subject itself varies on 
nearly every repetition. 

364. It is hoped that these examples will sufficiently show the 
nature of the fugato. It is, of course, far easier to write than a 
strict fugue, or even a fughetta, and is not of sufficient importance 
to require a lengthy notice ; but as this volume might perhaps 
have been considered incomplete without it, we have devoted a 
few pages to its consideration. 



» 82 Fugue. ichap xi 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE FUGUE ON MORE THAN ONE SUBJECT. 

365. Having in the preceding chapters of this book fully 
explained the construction of those fugues which, being founded 
on only one subject, are sometimes termed " simple " fugues, 
we have in this chapter to speak of the important class which 
contains two, three, and occasionally even more subjects. We 
shall first deal with the Double Fugue, in which, as its name 
indicates, there are two subjects. 

366. In speaking of the countersubject, we incidentally men- 
tioned (§ 175) that some theorists speak of a fugue in which the 
subject is regularly accompanied by the same countersubject as a 
" double fugue." If, however, we adopt this nomenclature, we 
have no means of distinguishing between fugues with one subject 
and fugues with two or more. It is very much better and clearer 
to restrict the name of double fugue to two classes of fugue now 
to be described : — First, those in which the two subjects are 
announced simultaneously ; and, secondly, those in which each 
subject has a separate and complete exposition before the two 
are heard in combination. Of these, the first kind is by far the 
more common and the more important ; we therefore deal with 
it first. 

367. A fundamental distinction between the kind of double 
fugue we are now noticing, and the fugue with a regular counter- 
subject (with which the student is already familiar) is, that in the 
latter the countersubject never appears before the first entry of 
the answer, and, as we have seen (§ 172), not always then. But 
in a double fugue the second subject, which is really a counter- 
subject of the first, accompanies the leading subject on its first 
entry. This, as we shall see presently, makes a difference (some- 
times a very considerable difference) in the form of the ex- 
position. 

368. It ought to be hardly necessary to remind students 
that the two subjects of a doable fugue must be written in 
some kind of double counterpoint with one another. In the 
enormous majority of cases, this will be double counterpoint 
in the octave. In the ' Kyrie ' of Mozart's ' Requiem,' the 
two subjects (which we quoted in § 175 of Double Counterpoint) 
are so written as to be capable of inversion both in the octave 



chap, xi i Fugues on More than One Subject. 



183 



and in the twelfth. It is also necessary that there should be 
contrast, both melodic and rhythmic, between the two subjects, 
so that each may be easily recognized whenever it appears. 

369. It is best that a double fugue should be written for at 
least four voices, and in vocal music this is almost invariably the 
case. It is nevertheless possible, though less advisable, to write 
a double fugue with only three parts. In any case, the student 
will do well to attend to Albrechtsberger's recommendation that a 
fugue should always have at least one more voice than it has 
subjects. Thus, a double fugue ought to be in at least three 
parts, and a triple fugue (with three subjects) in at least four. 
But in fugues with more than three subjects (which are very rare), 
*his rule is not always observed, probably because in a fugue with 
four subjects it is seldom that all four are present at once. The 
object of the extra voice is, to be able to add a free part when all 
the subjects are going on at the same time. 

370. The exposition of a double fugue can be managed in 
more than one way. In a four-part fugue, the best arrangement 
is to let two of the voices announce the two subjects, which the 
other two follow with the two answers by inversion — that is to 
say, the upper of the two subjects will appear as the lower of the 
two answers, and vice versa. A few examples will make this quite 
clear. 

I J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Aus der Tiefe rufe ich." 




gge=JEE 



Al. 



i* -1 r 



S2. 



Wr^f 1 



^ g^ 



Wi 



5t 



as 



t=±t 




The small notes on the bass staff here show the instrumental 
bass ; the bass voices have only the second subject, which is 



r84 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XI. 



printed in large notes. Here the two subjects are announced 
by the outer voices ; when the middle parts bring in the answers, 
the two themes are inverted in the octave. Notice that the two 
subjects do not begin simultaneously. It is extremely rare foi 
this to happen. Frequently the second commences only a 
crotchet, or even a quaver, after the first ; but it is undesirable 
that they should start together, as it would make it more difficult 
to distinguish them. The counterpoint in the treble of the last 
two bars is, as will be seen, a free part. 



371. In our next example, 



Handel. Six Fugues for Harpischord, Nc. 1. 



j 1 ' "" i 1 ' " i„:'j^,L^ n 



rrf r rr 



w& 



S2. 



gffi 





the order of entry of the preceding is reversed. Here the two 
middle voices have the subjects and the outer ones the answers. 
Note in the answer in the treble the change of an octave in pitch 
(§ 154) to keep the music within the reach of the hands. The 
alteration at the end of both the answers is an illustration of what 
has been more than once mentioned — that Handel's fugue writing 
is usually much more free than Bach's. 

372. It is not always necessary that the two voices which 
enter with the answers should be in the opposite relative 
positions to those which announce the subjects. Sometimes 
the part which was the higher at first is still the higher, as in 
the following example. 



Cnap. XL] FUGURS ON MORR THAN ONE SUBJECT. I 8? 



--m 



SI. 



Haydn. 1st Mass. 



Al. 



-&=&- 



t=t 



S2. 



A 2 



^SL 



§333, 



S2. 




i* m m 1 r~j » ^ ^ 



§g^^ 



:2^i 




We have here a subject taking a tonal answer ; the second 
subject (which corresponds to the countersubject of a simple 



i86 



Fugue, 



[Chap. XI. 



fugue) also needs modification (§ 170). We have quoted the 
whole exposition, as it shows a very frequent manner of com- 
mencing a double fugue. 

373. After the first entries of the two subjects and answers, 
we see other entries in the same keys as before, but differently 
distributed between the voices. At bar 5, the tenor has the first 
subject, and the alto the second ; in the seventh bar the bass has 
the first answer, and the alto a modified form of part of the 
second. Lastly, at bar 10, the first subject is seen again in 
the treble, while bass and tenor both have the second subject, 
the tenor being written in double counterpoint in the tenth. 
When an exposition contains only one entry each of the subjects 
and answers, it will be very brief. This is the case with the 
example in § 371, where our extract is immediately followed by 
the first episode ; more frequently, as here, additional entries 
precede the introduction of any episodical matter. 

374. Occasionally after two voices have announced the 
subjects, the other pair, instead of giving the answers, repeat 
the subjects, but inverted in their relative positions. 



P 



Handel. ' Judas Maccabaeus.' 



SI. 



w^vrr j if 



3tF 



m 




^^ 







iSE 



£ 



Chap. X!. 



Fugues on More than One Subject. 



i*7 




^ 



m 



&=* 



^m 



SSt 



x=st 



&c. 



« I 



m^E 



±iE 



10 



11 



12 



It looks at first sight as if the first subject extended to the 
sixth bar. That this is not the case is proved by the second 
subject. If bars 4 and 10 are compared, it will be seen that 
they are quite different. Now it is an important rule in writing a 
double fugue that, though the two subjects had better begin one 
after the other, they must always finish together. Bar 10 proves 
that the second subject ends on the first note of bar 4 ; 
consequently the first subject must end at the same point, and 
bars 5 and 6 must be regarded as codetta. 

375. The exposition of a double fugue is sometimes arranged 
in quite a different manner, which will be best understood by an 
example. 

Hummel. 2nd Mass. 



i 



PSI=E 



pgi 






82 



Al. 




I 



m 






A 2. 



4e 



si. 



M 



m 



Fugue. 



(Chap. Xi 



-^8 2. ^ -^ A1 - 


^fe~F"^=j J =?= J I g -^= g f f Eg z^z=g=rr=H 






r 


M ft b J — J — J — f 1 = " " 


«fc-b 


Mm, 



10 



11 



12 



13 




As in the preceding examples, the two subjects are announced 
together, here by the tenor and bass voices ; but instead of 
the two answers being given by the other two voices, the tenor, 
which has just completed the second subject, continues with 
the first answer, the alto entering with the second answer. The 
bass continues as far as bar 7 with a free counterpoint, and is 
then silent till it re-enters with the second answer in bar 14. 

376. The alto, having completed the second answer, continues 
with the first subject, while the treble enters with the second 
subject, going on in its turn with the first answer. This gives the 
bass the opportunity of bringing in the second answer below the 
first (as in the additional entry of a simple fugue), and the 
exposition is completed when both the subjects (or answers) 
have been heard in each voice. 

377. In the above example, each new voice entered first with 
the second subject. In the following we see the reverse case, all 
the fresh entries being with the first subject. 



chap, xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 189 

Cherubini. 2nd Mass. 




* * =sz 



ti*» r-y 



g 



s 




Al. 



^T?E 



4^P HP- 



^=y 



s 



10 



11 12 



13 



14 



/» p 




fS" h»— 


n 1 1 








feN= 


^ 


1 1 1J>= 


g -J.-j-j- 


- g g 


T 1 "" ~i Ff 




llfli" I 






mfff 


h 


S2. 

i -, r >** — f.f 


1 




-f y— 1 




ifiig 1 — 

A^Ht 










-j — 1 — — ! I — 1 — p-j — 

SI. 

~p p 


H 


K 15 




16 17 


18 




1 f- 

19 20 


— i 





: st* r p -r»rr ir v -~ — r y^r — — 


Fj — ! — : — 'CP '' — L -^~ i ' — 


01 ** ct. f r*r — f — f — *~^~ ^ * ,y ^* ,r r f * — ' — ^ — 


A 2. 

to-HfS? r= = .?+ %• * * -7= -= — = «i fry- 





21 22 



23 



24 25 



26 



:t 



jt 9° 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XI 




After the explanations of the preceding exposition, few words are 
needful concerning this one. If the student will examine it, he 
will see that a codetta is introduced before each new pair of 
entries. The treble, which led with the second subject, makes its 
final appearance at bar 27 with the first, showing the inversion of 
the two subjects, just as they were shown at bar 14 of the example 
by Hummel. 

378. Another important point is illustrated by the two ex- 
positions just quoted. It will be seen that though both are 
for four voices, only three are present at any one time, while 
a considerable part of the exposition in § 375 is for two voices 
only. We often find this in the exposition of a double fugue ; 
the reason is that it is absolutely necessary that both the subjects 
shall be clearly and easily distinguished, and this end is attained 
by leaving them either without any other counterpoint, or with 
only one added part. Clearness is, if possible, of even more 
importance in a double fugue than in a fugue with only one 
subject. 

379. The general form of such double fugues as those we are 
now describing mostly follows the plan shown in Chapter IX. 
But there are some differences of detail often to be met with that 
must be mentioned. In the first place we sometimes find less 
episode in a double than in a simple fugue. For instance, the 
' Kyrie ' of Mozart's ' Requiem,' one of the finest double fugues 
ever written, contains only one episode, and that is but a bar 
and a half in length. When there is so little episode, its place is 
usually taken by developments of one of the two subjects without 
the other. 

380. In general, both subjects should be heard together in 
each group of middle entries. Occasionally, we find such an 
entry for one subject alone ; but this is far more exceptional 
than the entry of a subject in a simple fugue without its counter- 
subject. 

381. It is seldom practicable in a double fugue to write a 
stretto in which both the subjects shall take part. We have 
already seen with simple fugues that if there is much stretto, 
there is generally either no countersubject, or, if there be one, 
it is omitted in the stretti. The obvious reason for this is. that 



chap, xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 191 

that part of the countersubject which is written against the latter 
part of the subject can seldom be also made to fit the first part 
which, in a stretto, will be appearing in another voice ; while, if all 
the voices are joining in the stretto, there will evidently be none 
left to give the countersubject. As the second subject in a double 
fugue is virtually a countersubject to the first, it is clear that the 
same reasoning will apply to it. Consequently the stretti, when 
there are any, in a double fugue are mostly made from one subject 
alone, and very often take the place of the episodes. 

382. The general rules as to the order of entries, etc., given in 
§ 325, apply also to double fugues, excepting that in the latter 
there should be no isolated entry for one of the subjects un- 
accompanied by the other. One entry of the two subjects 
together may, however, be divided by episodes from the preceding 
and following. 

383. Our space will not allow us to give complete examples 
here of double fugues, as we did of simple fugues in Chapter IX. 
In the volume on Fugal Analysis, which will follow the present 
one we shall insert some fine specimens of this kind. Meanwhile 
it is hoped that the explanations given in this chapter will enable 
the student to understand the construction of a double fugue, and, 
if necessary, to write one for himself. 

384. We have now to speak of the second variety of double 
fugue — that in which each of the two subjects has its own 
separate exposition, and it is only in the latter part of the 
fugue that they appear together. Though some very fine 
examples of such fugues are to be found, they are far rarer 
than the kind of which we have been hitherto speaking, and 
they are constructed after a different plan. 

385. It is, of course, just as necessary in this kind of fugue as 
in the other that the two subjects must be composed together in the 
first instance, and that they must be in double counterpoint with 
one another ; otherwise it is in the highest degree improbable 
that it will be possible to combine them. The essential difference 
between this and the other class of double fugues is, that here the 
combination, instead of being shown at first, is reserved for the 
climax, whereby its effect is frequently much increased. 

386. There is considerable difference in various fugues of 
this class as to the amount of separate treatment which each 
subject receives before they are brought together. Sometimes 
the first subject will have a regular exposition, and the second 
only a partial one, as in the following passage, which, to save 
space, we give in short score. 

Handel. Dettingen Anthem. 



J ,,, j.-.u^ y gi 



"22 — ■ — m ' 



f 
mm 



(Chap. Xt 




OS l l J 1 J J -J J*~^ 


/U tf ■ J . -= J =r^3 *d =* « s P"P m F" 





(rr^^- 


— «J a* «i J — J- 


i,q»j 


i j J-. j j J j » 


i | 


r i ■ i h r'-r — 

-J-J-T-J J -J J ■ J * 


J J 


• r r r r , 


V 


1 







ff 'r 1 '^— -if' 'rr 



J J^Til J J 



*m 



& * 



j. r j ■ 



Bi 



rrfrirVrF/rr'n/ 5 ^gb i 




SLMr'.^r ' r.M ' . ^^ 




fel fc: ^g r g 



Chap. XL] Fugues o-n More than One Subject. 



193 



fe^r 



3TD 



^^ 



* jLfcir^J j 



-1 — r-=T=f-' 



^z=3=z2=\ 



~&~^ 



3PC 



S 



=«<=±rifcfc*=g=, 



^^ 



ei 



r/ff ff j j 


^=F 


=*=d— 


m> 


-J J-j, 


1— • — 


^ J ^ 


ij. j 1 i 




=P^E 




r 


* f r 


1 


— fs 


^rT-^ 


^23 

V 




_J 










j 



I 



SSgi 



■J 1- 



pSfe 



f777 



1 1 



T 



1 1 



r- J 



Hi 



^-y 



s 



£a 



i=t 





-&J _ — _ 

A J J- ! 


"^J ■ , -J ■ !-n 


1 1 


B*t «> — ■ 


ra *M^- 


— <s> 


\~& • ii 


v 






— 1 J 



Here the first exposition is separated from the second by a short 
symphony for the orchestra. In the second exposition, the 
subject in the alto is answered by the treble ; but the bass 
and tenor have only free imitations of its first notes, and there 
is no complete exposition of the second subject. After the 
cadence in G major, the two subjects are combined ; but the 
freer style is soon resumed, as will be seen from the last bars of 
our quotation. 

387. Our next illustration is somewhat more regular in 
treatment. 

J. S. Each. Cantata, " Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele." 



i^fP S ^ 



*94 



Fugue. 



[Chap, xt 




The subject here (as will be seen later when the two are 
combined) extends to the D at the beginning of the fifth bar. 
We have here therefore a "close fugue" (§ 279), though the 
answer does not enter so immediately after the commencement 
of the subject as in the examples of this kind of fugue previously 
given. The small notes on the bass staff show, as in other cases, 
the real (instrumental) bass of the harmony. We have here a 
quite regular exposition, of which (to save space) we have 
omitted the last two bars of the bass entry. In the continuation 
of the passage there are two instrumental entries — subject 
(2nd violins), answer (1st violins), making in all an exposition 
of a six-part fugue. 

388. After three bars of interlude for the orchestra, there is a 
counter-exposition of the first subject. Here the bass leads with 
the answer and the tenor replies with the subject, all the entries 
being in the reverse order of that of the first exposition. We 
exceptionally find here that it is only the order of entry that is 
reversed ; usually a voice that had the answer in the exposition 
will have the subject in the counter-exposition, and vice versa. 

389. The counter-exposition is followed at once by the 
exposition of the second subject. 




^-f 



Chap. xi. j Fugues on More than One Subject. 



'95 




This subject, like the other, is four bars in length ; it is also 
treated in six parts by the addition of entries for two violins ; 
but the irregularity of the intervals of reply show that this 
exposition belongs to the fugato (§ 358) rather than to strict 
fugue. 

390. To the counter-exposition succeeds immediately the 
combination of the two subjects, of which we quote the first 
bars. For the sake of clearness, we here give them in open 
score. 




m m vf 



&c 



9 6 



Fugue. 



LChap. XI 



It will be seen that modifications are made in the second pair of 
entries ; in bar 7 of our extract the close of the first subject is 
transferred from the bass to the treble. We have already seen 
the same thing (§ 271) in the case of a countersubject. A little 
later we find the two subjects combined in a different manner. 



-a g 1 — u — p^— | — j-| — ««, _ — r 1 — I 1 — -L- -1 — — 1 — | — 1 , 




mi ff^ - - j 1 — » • *]% \fe» rwf*r *rrr *PTrpi — %m ? ^\ 





Here the first half of the first subject serves as a counterpoint to 
the second half of the second subject — a combination which we 
just now remarked (§ 381) was very seldom possible. But 
almost anything seems to have been possible to Bach. The 
whole fugue which we have been describing is a marvel of 
scientific contrivance, though we do not recommend students 
to imitate the consecutive seconds seen in the last bar but 
one of our last example. 

391. One of the most perfect examples, as regards its form, of 
this kind of double fugue is an organ fugue by Bach in C minor. 
The piece is too long to quote here ; it will be found in the 
Peter's Edition of Bach's Organ Works, Vol. IV., p. 36, to which 
we refer the student, confining ourselves here to a short analysis 
of the piece. It will be seen to differ considerably from the 
examples already described. 

392. The first subject of the fugue, which is in four parts, is 

Organ Fugue in C minor. 
tr 




This subject receives a regular exposition (bars 1-14) followed by 
an episode of four bars. To this succeed four isolated entries in 
the keys of G minor (bar 18), E flat major (bar 23), and 
C minor (bars 29 and 34). After a full close in G minor, with 
the " Tierce de Picardie," the second subject is announced 
(bar 37) : 




This subject, like the first, has a complete exposition, the second 
and third entries of which are divided by a codetta (bars 42, 43). 
This second exposition ends in bar 49, and is followed by entries 
of subject or answer in G minor (bar 49), C minor (bar 52), 
F minor (bar 55), C minor (bar 57); then, after an episode 



chao. xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 



*97 



(bars 60 to 63), C minor again (bar 63), and an altered entry 
(bars 66 to 69), partly in F minor, and partly in C minor. 

393. At bar 70 the two subjects appear together tor the first 
time. We quote the first two entries. 

j J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue, in C minor. 



TF~ry 



m 



^[gasr Cr 



Manual. 



^m 



^m 



Pedal. 



Bi 



BE 




The modifications in the tonal answers will be easily understood 
if Chapter IV. of this volume has been thoroughly mastered. 
It will be seen that the figures of semiquavers have been 
simplified for the pedals. This is probably less because of 
their technical difficulty than because of the very practical 
reason that the lower notes of the pedal organ cannot be depended 
on to speak with sufficient rapidity. When the second subject 
(the more florid of the two) is given to the pedals, as at bars 77 
and 88, it is even more simplified than the first subject. 

394. The fugue we are now examining contains five entries 
subsequent to those last quoted. All of them are either in the 
tonic or dominant key, and in all both the subjects appear in 
their complete shape. A coda of six bars (bars 99 to 104) 
concludes the movement. 

395. By comparing this fugue with those we have previously 
spoken of, we see what may be approximately described as the 



198 Fugue. [Chap. xi. 

limits of variation in the form now under notice. In both 
our earlier examples, the second exposition followed immediately 
on the first, — in the case of the fugue in " Lobe den Herrn, meine 
Seele," after the counter-exposition. In the C mir or fugue, on 
the contrary, each subject has a considerable amount of working 
out before the next is introduced. In the fugues in §§ 386, 387, 
the combination of the two subjects followed close after the 
second exposition ; here it is not so. In fact, it is left entirely 
to the judgment of the composer in a fugue of this kind, how 
much development he will give to each of his subjects separately 
before he proceeds to treat them in combination. 

396. A double fugue of this class, like a simple fugue, is in 
ternary form ; but its three sections are different from those of a 
simple fugue which we showed in Chap. IX. A fugue of the 
kind now under notice will contain the three following sections : — 

(1) Treatment of first subject separately. 

(2) Treatment of second subject separately. 

(3) Treatment of both subjects combined. 

We have already said that it is optional how much each section 
contains. 

397. There is one more point to be noticed with respect to 
thus variety of fugue. Owing to the fact that both the subjects 
will have their expositions in the original keys of tonic and 
dominant, we usually find very little modulation in a fugue of 
this sort. As a striking illustration of this, take the fugue in 
C minor which we have just analyzed. Not counting the 
expositions, it contains in all fifteen entries, either of the single 
subjects or of the two together. Of these, twelve are either 
in C minor or in G minor. Only three (one fifth of the whole) 
are in any other key. It is quite possible, as Bach conclusively 
proves in this masterly fugue, to obtain variety by other means 
than incessant modulation. 

398. A lMple Fugue, that is, a fugue with three subjects, is 
very much rarer than a fugue with two, and when we find one, it 
is seldom strict. The first requisite for such a composition is, 
that the three subjects must be written in triple counterpoint, 
as each will in turn have to do duty as a bass. It is also needful 
that all the subjects be well contrasted in character, as we have 
already seen that they should be in the case of a double fugue. 

399. It is possible to write a triple fugue after the second of 
the two methods above shown for a double fugue, that is to say, 
to give each of the three subjects a separate exposition before 
combining them. But this plan is seldom adopted, probably 
owing to the length to which it will cause the composition 
to extend. A striking illustration of this is seen in the final 
fugue in Bach's ' Art of Fugue,' of which we will sere give 
a short account before proceeding to speak of the moR common 
kind of triple fugue. 



Chap, xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 



199 



400. The fugue now to be noticed, one of Bach's latest 
compositions, was unfortunately never completed, being inter- 
rupted by the composer's blindness, which shortly preceded 
his death. Enough, however, exists to show the scope of the 
whole work. We first give the exposition of the first subject. 



f 



£SE 



I. S. Bach. ' Art of Fugue.' 



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Al- 



?=: 






m 



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r ■ r \-& 



n -i r l j 



m ==P =t 



Jfu - 1 ■ 1 1 - 1 - 1 =q 


m 1 ■! 1 1 — l -j 


y- — ~ ^ — h= — r, i r ' r— a — h 2 : 


fip 1— — ! — M ' ! 


MU ^ s = — u — rv ^ * j p 


ifljj: _ e 1 1 1 1 — p_f " ■> 1 

(j«X p* S 1 ^T f* jr J Jf * f « J h— 1 1 1 J 1 as — : V»- 


^ r r ' * 1 »■ s r 1 r ^ j * j ^ — 1 — ^ — &- 

*"n 9 ' 10 11 ' 12 "^ • 14 



13 



[-^ 


Al 

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P— — — — — — h 1 — 1 


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1 j 


1 - 
r^ — ffrs 5 — 


p^ ~ " 




iw^ 1 , 

^ 15 


1 ! b£ 

16 


17 


18 


19 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XI. 




After the entry of the answer in the treble (bar 16), we have in 
bar 21 the inverted subject in the bass, imitated in stretto and 
in direct motion by the tenor in bar 24. This subject is 
henceforth treated both by direct and inverse motion, and 
mostly in stretto at two or one bar's distance till bar 114, 
at which point a full close is made in the tonic key. We have 
thus far a fugue on one subject complete in itself, and the 
whole piece might end here. Bach, however, makes his cadence 
the starting point for a new departure. 

401. We give the cadence closing the first part of the fugue, 
and the commencement of the second exposition, which is too 
long to quote in its entirety. 




Cfcap. xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject 20; 



-jh ' - =1 


— 


— 




— 




g -' 








M" r rf r Trf f 


ir^frri 


r r«»r f 


-ffc 


F^rr-^^: 


^= 


Iff Ecn !"=™~ 

fr — =^ 


! '^j^ 1 






^^— ' l r i i 


ini 

Be 




<m 




Wfc 








.. 





^ 116 



118 




120 



121 



122 



123 



frrrr r" M i ^"rcrr^-^ ^ 



tut 



■P m r rr-^ 



£ ^*«U1 I i L i " JJ 



1 1 1 



gg 



*** 



$g g ^ 



a 



124 



125 



126 



127 



i 



fr~ LZf ~ L g*=^ 



r g rr^~ g 



¥ 



&c. 



SE 




128 



129 



FUGDE. 



LChap. XI. 



This exposition ends at bar 14.1. and, after an episode of five 
bars, the first and second subjects are combined thus : — 




B 



r~ w=m 



J pa 



Hf*- 






3^g£ 



g 



Sl- 



fc=^ 



147 



148 



149 



150 




fcfc 



&c. 



m 



151 



152 



153 



154 



Later in the fugue (bars 167 to 173; the two subjects are 
combined in a different manner, the first subject being now 
introduced, not against the second, but against the third bar 
of the second subject. The end of the second section of the 
fugue shows another ingenious device. Above the second 
subject (in the bass) the first is introduced by treble and alto 
in stretto at one bar's distance, one entry being on the third and 
the other on the fourth bar of the second subject. 

402. The second section of the fugue closes in G minor, and 
at bar 193 the third subject, made from the composer's name, is 
introduced. For the sake of those who do not understand 
German, it will be well to say that in Germany the note B flat 
is simply called B, and B natural is named H. We now give 
the third exposition. 



chap, xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 



203 



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r pc 



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4=- H -H fc* 



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A C 


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— * — 


— s 


1 1 








_p — 1_ _ 1_^ 1 1 





192 



193 



194 



195 



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W ■ 




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rr^cr r 1 ^-r-£fe 




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r a^ — r ^p \-p — r-*p- 


ifliii— 1 — - or r 1 — 1 — 

&.- 


J 4jT 1 1 — !_[_ r "\ 


L^ = 

^ 196 197 




198 199 



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an 


A3 

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M? 

^ 200 


201 


202 


203 




204 



205 



206 



207 



zo4 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XI. 



This third subject is then treated both by direct motion and by 
inversion (see bars 213 and 222) ; and at bar 232 a half close in 
D minor is made which leads to the f.ial section of the fugue, in 
which all three subjects are combined. Of this section Bach only 
lived to write seven bars, which we give exactly as they are found 
in his autograph. 

Free Part. 




232 



233 



234 



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9 


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236 




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238 



239 



403. A triple fugue, constructed on this plan, will clearly 
contain four sections, instead of the three with which we are 
familiar in other fugues ; for there will be one for each separate 
exposition, and a fourth for the final combination of the three 



Chap. 



xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 



205 



subjects. But the length to which the composition will extend 
will necessarily be so great that this kind of triple fugue is 
extremely rare. We have met with no other example of it 
than that which we have been analyzing, though Albrechtsberger 
mentions a similarly constructed fugue in G minor by Mattheson, 
from which he quotes a few short passages. 

404. In the ordinary triple fugue, the three subjects are 
announced simultaneously, like the two subjects in the double 
fugues seen in §§ 370 to 377. But in a four-part fugue, it is 
evident that the method of exposition in the examples of 
§§ 37° to 374 will be impossible. After three of the voices 
have announced the three subjects (which, it must be remembered, 
should not begin exactly together, though they must all finish 
together), the fourth voice should enter with the answer to the 
first subject, two of the other voices giving the other two answers, 
while the remaining voice may either be silent or add a free part. 
The three subjects are then heard again, differently distributed 
between the voices, and then the three answers once more. The 
exposition is complete as soon as all the subjects have been 
heard (either as subject or answer) in each of the voices. It is 
important to remember that the same subject should not be 
heard twice in succession in the same voice. 

405. The instructions given in the last paragraph will be now 
illustrated by the exposition of a triple fugue by Albrechtsberger. 



S2- 



Albrechtsberger. 



p 



F=* 



g — r 



p= r-rfF^ 



r=> • 



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■f* — mw- 1 f 

1 U I I 



ms 




j^7 1-^ 




A3 


r-i 1 1 ! 1— 1 

~~p — d — a — d — » \~ 


W^ -< 




■'i r r 


r 9 m J - 


to 7 r^T^F — 


— p* 


fi? 


— ^ T^^ ig" "^ 

— 1 1 F 


■RH- — ' ' ' ' : : ' 


feP^ h-r—~- 






!•"! — f 55 — : ' 


E* d • — -F — r- 

g J r — r — a — 




— 1 — ' 

• 


1 — ' -1 — 1 

a as 


^6 7 




8 


9 



206 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XI 



.-• 


tr 




1 

4 -j 


— i 






pa 








-j 










i 


qft 


— L—w 1 


fg ' 


— r — 




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3 


1— P 1 - 


=fZ2= 


1 r 


pq r. 


S3 — 

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" 1 


1 








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1 r 


f-ff f 


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p p 1 r — : 


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* 1 r 


=£= 


r r i 


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ii 








12 




13 







a 



3= I s z 



Al- 




A2 




It will be seen that each voice has all three subjects in turn, but 
that none has the same subject twice. 

406. The form of this kind of triple fugue is the same ternary 
form as that of a simple fugue, and the construction of a complete 
piece of this character will be best shown by the analysis of a fine 
example from M>zart's Twelfth Mass, a work from which we have 
already had more than one occasion to quote 



Chap xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject, 207 

Mozart. Mass in C, No. 12. 




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j_ 1 — 


m m 


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!*■ f — r- -1 ft r f jp — p — 


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* r =^==5 u r r == 

Al 

£ — | r, — r . r-^Fn 


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r ! j \ 1 '.■ *•■ ■- j 1 — j 


S3 

M — 1 r f r f if 8- — p-f — 


1 

m b- — - ■■■ — — 


pi — n 1 r I — : * — f-j ; I j ; 


fa p p pF F ^ ,* {> 


I A3 

-j* p = 1 f i* m . 


^7 8 


_j j '—j-j J 

9 




2o8 



Fugue. 



LChap. XI. 



$r*3= 


1 


Middle Section. 










, 




— 4^ 


Episode 2. 




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E 

— ft 







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r*p f i 


fil & 1 


— ^ U, 






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tHi -i tf r r r r ** * r 


_i - r s* fn= — — 


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P — ±J& — UJ — £_l k — i !__ 


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1 - 1 — U 


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16 17 






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X r r s r f « rr qr r r^r~^~ 


1 Tu * 

— m ft* - f 


» 

I* 1 i* N 


C\) i In 1. 1 — p 2Lp T ~ i J — *L_ 

Episode 2. 

q ^ — 


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— n . p 


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cn.xp. XL] Fugues on More than One Subject. 209 

Final Section. S 3 




PUS 



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A3 



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., rr r r y r c I r 



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^rjj^ £=g 



Fugue 



IChap. xv 




The small notes in the bass of bars 14, 21, 25, and 26, and in 
the treble of bars 34 to 36, are additional parts for the orchestra. 
We have omitted a few notes for the violins, which merely fill up 
the harmony, so as to show the fugal construction more clearly ; 
and we have not given the last nine bars of the movement, 
because these are merely a free coda, and not a part of the fugue 
itself. 

407. The exposition of this fugue extends to the first note of 
bar 1 1 ; it will be seen that each subject has then been heard in 
all the voices. An additional entry of all the subjects leads to 
the key of A minor, the last note of the first subject being 
sharpened in the tenor, to induce the modulation. The middle 
section of the fugue therefore commences at bar 13, with an 
episode only one bar in length. At bar 14 is the first group 
of middle entries, the three subjects appearing in A minor. 
These are at once followed by incomplete entries of the three 
answers in E minor, shown, as in our preceding examples, by 
A — ? Fragments of the subjects are then treated sequentially in 
the second episode (bars 19 to 21), bringing the music to the key 
of F. In this key the second group of middle entries, incomplete 
in all the voices, is made at bar 21. The third and last episode 
(bars 23 to 26) leads back to the key of C, and to the final 
section of the fugue, which begins in bar 26. 

408. This final section contains three groups of entries, all 
of which are in stretto. In the first and second, the answer 
enters at a bar and a half's distance after the subject, and all 
three subjects are present, though, as will be seen, some are 
incomplete. In the third and closest stretto (bar 34), a part of 
the first subject is treated by itself in imitation in the octave at 
one bar's distance in all four voices. It will be seen that at bars 
34 to 36, a fragment of the second subject is given by the violins 
as a counterpoint to the first subject in the voices. 

409. It will be noticed that as the subjects modulate to the 
dominant, they require tonal answers. The subdominant in the 
second subject prevents the modulation from taking place till 



Chap, xi.] Fugues on More than One Subject. 2 1 1 

the third bar, and we see that all three subjects need modification 
in the answers. Of the six possible combinations of a triple 
counterpoint, Mozart has only employed three; but it must be 
noticed that each of the subjects appears in the bass {Double 
Counterpoint, § 253). One more point remains to be noticed 
about this fugue — the almost entire absence of free parts. For 
the sake, no doubt, of that clearness which is so essential in 
double and triple fugues, the three subjects always appear without 
any additions, which might prevent their being easily distinguished. 
It is not till bar 38 of our extract, and the coda which we have 
not quoted, that we find any continuous four-part harmony. 

410. It is seldom that we find a triple fugue so strictly treated 
as that by Mozart which we have just been analyzing. Composers 
usually allow themselves considerable freedom in such cases. 
For example, the very interesting ' Fuga a 3 soggetti.' in Haydn's 
quartett in A, Op. 20, No. 6, the three subjects of which are 
quoted in Double Counterpoint, § 262, is, strictly speaking, not a 
triple fugue at all, but a double fugue, with one regular counter- 
subject; for the third subject appears for the first time as an 
accompaniment to the answer, and not to the other two subjects, 
and in some of the middle entries only two of the three subjects 
are employed together. 

411. A Quadruple Fugue, or a fugue on four subjects, is so 
extremely rare that it will not be needful to say much about it. 
The four subjects will now evidently have to be written in quad- 
ruple counterpoint ; but it is very seldom that they will be all 
announced at once. In Haydn's ' Fuga a 4 soggetti,' in his 1 
quartett in C, Op. 20, No. 2, only two of the . subjects are 
announced at first, the third and fourth subjects entering as 
countersubjects to accompany respectively the first and second 
appearances of the answers. The four subjects of this fugue, with 
their various inversions, were quoted as examples of quadruple 
counterpoint in Double Counterpoint, § 270. 

412. In Handel's 'Alexander's Feast,' the final chorus, "Let 
old Timotheus yield the prize," is sometimes spoken of as a fugue 
on four subjects. So, in one sense, it is ; but it cannot be 
regarded as a specimen of a true quadruple fugue, because 
seldom more than two, and never more than three of the four 
subjects are employed simultaneously. The fugal writing, as is 
mostly the case with Handel, is far from strict throughout. 

413 In Cherubini's 'Counterpoint and Fugue' will be seen a 
good example of a strict fugue on four subjects, the opening bars 
of which we gave in § 269 of Double Counterpoint ; but probably 
the finest specimen of a quadruple fugue ever written is the final 
movement of Cherubini's great ' Credo ' for a double choir, which 
has not only four subjects, but two countersubjects in addition, 
which make their first appearances against the answers. We have 
only space to quote the opening bars of this movement. 



212 



Fugue. 



(Chap. XI 

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As the last notes of this extract are the commencement of the 
first episode, we have here the complete exposition of the fugue. 
With the indications we have given of the entries of the subjects, 
&c, the student will easily understand it. In a fugue for so many 
voices and with so many subjects, it is not needful that each subject 
should be heard in every voice in the course of the exposition. 
Were it so, the fugue would be protracted to an inordinate length. 
Let it be also noted that, with so many subjects, the rule that all 
shall end together is relaxed. Here the second subject ends in 
the third bar, and the other three not till the fourth. Slight 
modifications will also be seen in the two countersubjects. 

414. In the later developments of such a fugue as this, it is 
not necessary that all the four subjects should be invariably 
present together. It will give more variety if sometimes only 
two or three are treated and developed at once. We advise the 
student to obtain the score of this ' Credo,' by Cherubim, which 
is published for a mere trifle in the well-known ' Peters Edition,' 
and to analyze the whole piece carefully for himself, as we have 
done the opening bars for him. He will thus probably learn 
more about the construction of a quadruple fugue than we could 
tell him in twenty pages of this volume. 



7 j6 



Fugue 



[Chap. XII. 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE FUCUE ON A CHORAL. 



415. In addition to the different varieties of fugues treated of 
in the preceding chapters, we not infrequently find fugues writien 
upon a choral. As with a canon on a choral {Double Counter- 
point, § 391), there are two ways in which this can be done. We 
can either take the melodies of the choral itself as the subjects of 
our fugue, or we can write a fugue on an entirely independent 
subject, introducing the choral in longer notes in one of the 
voices as a kind of canto fermo. Owing to the much greater 
freedom of its form, it is far easier to write a fugue on a choral 
than a canon. 

416. We will first speak of that form in which the choral itself 
furnishes the subjects of the fugue. The plan most often followed 
is to write a separate fugal exposition for each line of the choral, 
the last entering voice, which, for the sake of clearness, is generally 
one of the outer parts, introducing the melody, in most cases, 
though not invariably, by augmentation. 

417. As this method will be best taught by examples, we give 
two entire fugues of this kind, one very simple, the other rather 
more elaborate. The first is by one of Bach's great predecessors, 
the Danish organist Buxtehude. It is on the choral " Erhalt uns, 
Herr, bei deinem Wort." In the original there is only one flat in 
the signature, according to the custom of the time, though the 
key of the piece is G minor ; for the convenience of students, we 
adopt the modern key-signature. 



Buxtehude. 



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The Fugue on a Choral. 



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418. The first line of the choral is announced as a fugue 
subject in the tenor, and answered by the alto in bar 3. The 
treble gives the subject again in bar 6, and the bass (pedals) joins 
in with the subject at bar 8. The subject, and not the answer, is 
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in notes of the same length as the other parts. More usually, as 
in our next example, the plain choral is given in longer notes. 

419. At bar 10 begins the exposition of the second line of the 
choral. Here we see a little irregularity of treatment. The 
theme in an ornamented form appears in the tenor, and is 
imitated in stretto in the next bar by the treble. At bar 13, 
the answer is repeated, not by the alto (which had no' had it), 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XII. 



Dut by the tenor which gave the subject just before. The entry 
of the subject in the bass (bar 16) concludes the second section 
of the fugue. 

420. The third section is longer. The subject is first heard 
in the alto (bars 18 to 20), the answer in the treble (bar 21), and 
again in the tenor (bar 23), followed by an additional entry of the 
subject in the alto (bar 26), and completed by the canto fermo on 
the pedals (bars 28 to 30). The treatment of the last line is on a 
similar plan, as the student will easily see for himself. 

421. It will be noticed that this fugue really consists of four 
short expositions of different subjects, but that the first entries ir. 
all the lines of the choral, except the first, are accompanied by 
independent counterpoint. It is not necessary that all the inter- 
mediate expositions in a fugue on a choral should begin with one 
voice alone, though our next example will show that this may 
sometimes be done. 

422. The above fugue is given not as a perfect model for 
imitation, but as showing one of the earlier and simpler ways of 
treating a choral in the fugued style. The following example by 
Bach is a much more finished and artistic piece of work. 



J. S. Bach. " Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her." 



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chap, xi i. j The Fugue on a Choral. 223 

423. Here the canto fer mo is in the treble, in minims against 
the crotchets and quavers of the other voices, and the fugue is a 
close fugue (§ 279). It will be seen that the second and third 
lines of the choral (bars 6 and 12) are treated in fugato style, the 
entries not being at the regular intervals, while the first and fourth 
(bars 1 and 20) are in the intervals of subject and answer. The 
close imitations, and the treatment of fragments of the subjects 
deserve careful examination. 

424. If we observe the form of these two fugues, we shall 
find that they both differ considerably from the general fugal form 
described in Chapter IX. This will always be the case with a 
fugue on a choral ; and it is quite impossible to lay down any 
fixed rules for its form, because this will in all cases depend on 
the course of modulations of the choral itself. A certain amount 
of variety is always obtainable by varying the harmonies of the 
different lines of the choral, as Bach has done in the above 
example, by harmonizing the end of the second line of the choral 
(bars n and 12), not as a full cadence in E flat, but as a half 
cadence in C minor. B-ut in the case of short and simple chorals, 
such as the two given in our last examples, there will generally 
be comparatively little modulation, and only to nearly related 
keys. 

425. Another point illustrated by these two fugues is, that the 
entries of the lines of the choral as a canto fermo need not be at 
any regular intervals of time. In Buxtehude's fugue, the first line 
enters at the eighth bar, there are five bars' rest between the 
first and second lines, nine between the second and third, and 
nine between the third and fourth. With Bach, there is a bar 
and a half before the entry of the first line, two bars between the 
first and second, three between the second and third, and three 
again between the third and fourth. The points at which the 
various entries should be made is a matter that is entirely within 
the composer's discretion ; he may introduce his canto fermo 
exactly where he finds it most convenient. 

426. This form of fugue on a choral is less common in modern 
music than it was in the last century. Two effective examples 
maybe seen in the late Sir George Macfarren's oratorios. The 
chorus, "My soul, praise the Lord," in 'St. John the Baptist,' is 
founded on Dr. Croft's hymn-tune ' Hanover ' ; and the ' Old 
Hundredth ' is treated fugally in the final chorus of ' The 
Resurrection.' Both these fugues, however, differ from the 
models here given, inasmuch as, although the whole of the choral 
is heard as a canto fer?no y the actual subject of the fugue itself is 
in each case only the first line. These pieces, therefore, form a 
kind of connecting link between the variety already treated of and 
that now to be described. 

427. The second method of writing a fugue upon a choral is 
to take an entirely independent subject — that is, one not suggested 
by any part of the choral itself — and against this to introduce the 



224 



Fugue. 



Chap. XII. 



lines of the choral as a canto fermo at such points as may be found 
most convenient. A fugue of this kind is very seldom strict as to 
the intervals of entry. Of the numerous specimens to be found 
in Bach's 190 Church Cantatas, there is not a single one which 
would not be more accurately described as a fugato with a choral. 
As these have nearly always an independent orchestral accom- 
paniment, we prefer to select as an illustration the first twenty 
bars of a fugue on a choral taken from one of the motetts. The 
movement is too long to be quoted in full. 



J. S. Bach. Motett, "Furchte dich nicht. 





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2 26 FUG LIE. [Chap. XII. 

428. Here the key of the piece is A major; the subject, 
therefore, being throughout in the dominant, the answer is in 
the tonic (§ 70). The first answer is at the regular interval ; 
but the next entry of the subject (bar 4) is in the key of D 
instead of E ; and from this point the entries, though each is 
generally at a fourth or fifth above or below the preceding, are so 
irregular that it is impossible to say which are subjects, and which 
are answers. We have therefore marked them all with ' S.' 

429. It must be remembered that it is not allowed to trans- 
pose any phrases of the ca?ito fermo into other keys ; consequently 
only such modulations are available as can be introduced without 
doing violence to the original form of the choral. The same rule, 
of course, applies to the variety of fugue noticed in the earlier 
part of this chapter. Any other modulations, if used at all, can 
only be employed in what may be termed the interludes between 
the different lines of the choral. For instance, in our last 
example is a transient modulation at bar 9 to the key of E minor, 
introduced between the first and second lines of the choral. 

430. Though it is advisable, where practicable, to employ the 
theme of the fugue as a counterpoint against the choral, it is also 
allowed to introduce the latter during the episodes. This consider- 
ably lightens the composer's labours; for (as we have already seen 
in Chapter VII.), though the materials of the episodes should have 
some connection with the subject or countersubject of the fugue, 
considerable liberty of treatment is allowed ; and it will be much 
easier to introduce the choral than if we are bound to make it 
combine with a given theme. 

431. A fine example of this method of treatment is seen in 
Mendelssohn's third Organ Sonata. There is here a double 
fugue, each subject having a separate exposition before they are 
combined. We quoted the first subject in § 38 (d). After a 
regular four-voice exposition, Mendelssohn at the 17th bar of 
the fugue introduces on the pedals the first line of the choral 
" Aus tiefer Noth schrei 'ich zu Dir," as a fifth part. The 
subject is only suggested above the choral, a new entry taking 
place on the last notes of the line. The entries of the second 
and third lines of the choral (bars 22 and 28) are similarly 
treated. At bar 35 the exposition of the second subject (a 
figure of semiquavers) begins. After it has been carried through 
all the voices there is an episode (bars 43 to 47) against the 
latter half of which (from bar 45) the next line of the choral is 
heard. At bar 57 the two subjects are combined, and the 
choral is introduced in the pedals from time to time ; but in no 
one place throughout the fugue is either of the subjects in its 
entirety ever combined with the choral. 

432. Mendelssohn's organ sonatas are so well known and so 
accessible that we have contented ourselves with merely referring 
to this fugue instead of quoting from it, because no short extracts 
from it would have been of much assistance to the student. It 



Chap. XII. ] 



The Fugue on a Choral. 



-J? 



shows that it is not necessary actually to combine the fugue 
subjects with the choral. This fugue is a very fine specimen of 
its class, and it is no disparagement to Mendelssohn's genius that 
he has here preferred the freer style. It would have been very 
difficult (perhaps impossible for anyone except Bach, to whom 
nothing seems to have been impossible) to combine the choral 
with either of the themes he had selected for his fugue. He 
therefore wisely chose rather to write an effective composition 
than to attempt elaborate and difficult combinations, which, had 
he succeeded in effecting them, would probably have smelt 
strongly of the lamp. An over-display of technical cleverness is 
very likely to be dry. 

433. Sometimes only the first line of a choral, instead of the 
whole, is selected for fugal treatment. A well-known example of 
this is Bach's organ fugue in E flat, known in England as the 
'St. Ann's Fugue.' This is a double fugue of a somewhat 
unusual form, in three movements. The first is a simple fugue 
in five parts, the theme of which we quoted at § 102 (c), and 
which is the same as the first line of the hymn-tune, ' St. Ann's.' 
This movement ends with a full cadence in the tonic, introducing 
the second subject. 



(a) s 2. 



J. S. Bach. Organ Fugue in E flat, (' St. Ann's.') 



This second movement is in four parts only, without pedals. 
After a regular exposition, the new subject is treated by inversion, 
and then combined with the first subject, of which the rhythm is 
now altered, and which assumes the character of a canto fermo. 
si., , _r "_i i j. 




Subsequently the canto is also heard against the inversion of the 
second subject. A full close in C minor leads to the third move- 
ment, which, like the first, is in five parts. The theme will be 
seen at § 49 (c). We now have a third exposition, followed by 
combinations of the third subject with the canto fermo in various 
ways, of which one will serve as a sample. 





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It must be noticed that, though this fugue contains three 
subjects and three expositions, like the great fugue analyzed in 
Chapter XL, §§ 400-402, yet it is not really a triple fugue, as 
the three subjects are never all heard together. It more nearly 
resembles a fugue with two countersubjects heard in succession 
(§ 174). 

434. The fugue on a choral affords an illustration of the 
general principle so often referred to in these volumes, that 
in proportion as the difficulty o f the task increases, greater 
freedom is allowed to the composer. This has been amply 
shown in our examples. By the time that the student is so 
far advanced as to be able to attempt a composition of this 
class, he ought also to have acquired sufficient experience not 
to permit his liberty to degenerate into license. 



Cbap. XIII.] 



Accompanied Fugues. 



229 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ACCOMPANIED FUGUES. 



435. We not seldom find in fugues written for voices with 
instrumental accompaniment, that the instrumental parts are, to 
a greater or less extent, independent of the voice parts, by which 
latter the fugue is carried on. We are not now speaking of the 
doubling of voices in the octave above by violins, or other 
instruments, because mere doubling adds no new parts to the 
harmony, but of those cases in which either the harmony sug- 
gested by the voices is filled up by the instruments, or the latter 
have independent figures of counterpoint. Such fugues may be 
described as Accompanied Fugues. 

436. In Bach's vocal works, especially in the great Church 
Cantatas, which deserve to be far better known than they are, 
we frequently find the first exposition of a fugue accompanied by 
the basses and organ, the latter filling up the harmony, as in the 
opening choruses of the cantatas, " Es ist dir gesagt," and " Sehet 
welch 'eine Liebe" (Nos. 45 and 64 of the Bach Society's edition). 
Sometimes, as in one or two of the motetts for a double choir, 
the exposition of a fugue by one choir is accompanied by full 
harmony for the other. 

J. S. Bach. Motett, " Singet dem Herrn.' 



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Chap. XIII.) 



Accompanied Fugues. 



23 




Here the harmonic outline implied in the fugue subject is filled 
up by the chords of the second choir. 

437. Our next illustration is part of the exposition of a fugue 
from one of Bach's cantatas. 

J. S. Bach. Cantata, " Wer sich selbst erhohet. 



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It is difficult to condense Bach's very polyphonic orchestra on 
two staves without sacrificing clearness. At the sixth and seventh 
bars of our example, where the parts on the lower staff appear to 
cross, it must be remembered that the bass is still really the 
lowest part, because it is doubled in the lower octave by the 
double basses and the pedals of the organ. The figured bass is 
in Bach's own score, though we have in one or two details 
modernized his notation, as, for instance, where he writes \> 7 
instead of fi 7, according to the custom of his day. The 
passages in which there is nothing but a figured bass were accom- 
panied on the organ. The independent accompaniment of the 
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is continued through the greater part of the fugue. 



438. The following passages from Cherubim's first mass, 
which is for three voices only, show how thin harmony in the 
voice parts can be filled up. 



Cherubini. 1st Mass. 




2.34 



Fugue. 



fChap. XHl 



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the condensed form in which it appears in the published vocal 
score. 

439. A little further on, in the stretto of the same fugue, we 
find a different kind of independent orchestral accompaniment. 
As only a few instruments are employed, we quote the passage 
from the full score. 



Cherubini. 1st Mass. 



Violino imo. 



VlOLINO 2<Jo. 



Viola. 



Soprano. 



Tenor. 




Bass. 



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It will be seen that the string parts here are partly a free variation 
of the voice parts, and partly a filling up of the harmony by new 
and independent figures of accompaniment. 



236 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XIII. 



440. In Haydn's masses we find some excellent examples oi 
florid accompaniments for the violins, generally as variations 
of the voice parts. As an especially good illustration of this 
method of accompanying a fugue, we quote the opening of the 
" Et vitam " of his first mass. We give only the voice parts with 
the accompaniment of the violins and the basses ; the other 
instruments double the voices, except in a few unimportant notes 



Haydn, 1st Mass. 



VlOLINI I & 2. 



Soprano. 



Alto. 



Tenor. 



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so in reality is shown by the fact that the second subject, 
announced at first in the tenor, is only occasionally introduced 
in the remainder of the fugue, and does not even accompany all 
the entries in the exposition. 

441. At other times we find an orchestral counterpoint which 
is quite independent of the voice parts. 

Hummel. 1st Mass. 



Soprano. 

Alto. 



Tenor. 
Bass. 



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The subject and answer of this fugue were quoted in § 64, when 
we remarked on the rarity of the first voice being silent during 
the answer. We have selected this extract to explain what we 
said before, and also because it is a very good illustration of an 
independent accompaniment to a fugue ; but considered merely 
as a fugal exposition the counterpoint of the voices is pitiably 
weak. 



i 40 Fugue. 

442. Our next example is much better. 



iChap. XIII 



Schubert. Mass in F. 



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242 



Fugue. 



[Chap. XI II. 



The instruments not quoted in the above extract simply double 
the voice parts. These are written rather injudiciously low — the 
result, probably of the composer's inexperience, as he was only 
seventeen years of age when he wrote the mass ; but the counter- 
point is very good, and the moving figure for the violins gives 
great animation to the fugue. 

443. Among modern composers, Mendelssohn has been con- 
spicuously successful in his treatment of the accompanied fugue. 
It is needless to quote examples, which would only be further 
illustrations of the points shown in passages already given ; but 
we may refer students to the fugue on the words, " Behold now 
total darkness covereth the nations," in the chorus, " Rise up, 
arise !" of 'St. Paul,' and the final chorus of the 42nd Psalm, as 
excellent specimens of this class of composition. 

444. We have several times referred to Mozart's wonderful 
mastery of every scientific device. Our final example will give 
one more illustration of this. 



Mozart. Mass in F, No. 6. 



Violino imo. 



Viounq 2do. 



Soprano, 



Alto 




Caap. XIII.] 



Accompanied Fugues 



243 








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244 Fugue. [Chap. xiii. 

This passage deserves close examination. It will be seen that in 
the voice parts we find not only a regular fugal exposition, but an 
almost strict canon, 4 in i, in the fourth and octave below, the 
slight deviations being those necessitated by the tonal answer. 
At the same time the violin parts, for the sake of which the 
extract is quoted, have a different canon, 2 in 1, also very nearly 
strict, and these close imitations are carried on in as easy and 
natural a manner as possible. The passage is worthy of old Bach 
himself. 

445. It will be seen that this chapter consists almost entirely 
of examples. It is only in this way that assistance can be given 
to the student ; for in every branch of practical composition the 
invention of the melodies and the counterpoints must be left to 
the composer himself. By seeing what others have done before 
him, the student will be stimulated to go and do likewise. A few 
general inferences may, however, be drawn from the examples we 
have given. 

446. First and foremost is the necessity of clearness, on which 
we have already so often insisted, the importance of which 
increases as we add to the number of parts. As an illustration 
of this, look at the passage by Bach in § 437, and note how the 
orchestral accompaniments are written in such a way as never to 
obscure the progression of the voice parts by which the fugue is 
carried on. The same thing will be observed in the fugue by 
Haydn quoted in § 440. 

447. If the accompaniment to a fugue is anything more than 
a mere filling up of the harmony — that is, if it has independent 
features of its own, as in the examples to §§ 441, 442, 444, it is 
very desirable that it should be well contrasted with the subject 
and counterpoint of the fugue itself. 

448. It is seldom advisable to have more than one, or at 
most two, free instrumental parts, in the accompaniment to a 
fugue, because not only is the difficulty of composing much 
increased, but each added part renders it less easy to preserve 
clearness. It is quite true that we often find more than two free 
parts added in Bach's vocal fugues ; but it must not be forgotten 
that it seems to have been about as easy to Bach to write in ten 
or twelve real parts as it is to the average composer to write in 
four. The student will do well not to overtax his strength by 
attempting feats too difficult for him. Unless he can write florid 
counterpoint fluently in at least five or six parts, he had better not 
try to compose an accompanied fugue at all. 

449. Beyond these general hints, it is not possible for us to 
go. The farther we advance in this series of theoretical works, 
the more we are compelled to leave the student to his own 
resources. In our earlier volumes on Harmony and Counter- 
point, it was possible, at all events in most cases, to give very 
definite rules as to what to do, and what not to do. These 
subjects bear the same relation to composition that grammar 



Chap, xiii.] Accompanied Fugues, »45 

does to poetry. The old Latin proverb, Poeta nascititr, non fit, 
applies equally to music. Just as a man may have a thorough 
knowledge of the grammar of a language, and yet not have an 
idea of poetry in his head, a musician may have perfectly 
mastered Harmony and Counterpoint, and yet be no composer. 
Anyone who, like the author, has ever acted as an examiner for 
musical degrees at one of our universities, will need no further 
proof of the correctness of this statement than the recollection of 
some of the candidates' exercises that have passed through his 
hands — quite correct, perhaps grammatically, but as dry as the 
bones in Ezekiel's vision, and without the faintest spark of 
musical life. As soon as the teacher approaches the higher 
branches of composition, his relations to his pupil become to 
some extent modified. From a pedagogue, whose word is 
" You must," or " You must not," he now becomes an adviser 
who can only generally indicate the direction which the student's 
work should take, by setting before him the best models, and 
showing him how to imitate them. It must not be forgotten 
that every great composer has begun by being an imitator. 
Even Bach was no exception to this ; his earlier works were 
modelled after those of Froberger, Pachelbel, Buxtehude, and 
others of his predecessors. In order that the student may have 
a sufficiency of good models to guide him, we shall, as we 
have already incidentally mentioned, follow this volume by a 
companion work on ( Fugal Analysis,' which will contain a 
selection of the finest fugues by the great composers, in various 
styles, put into score and fully analyzed. From an examination 
of these, the student who has mastered the present volume will 
probably learn all that is possible to be learned from books. 

450. One word in conclusion. Many of che rules laid down 
in this volume differ materially from those given in most other 
treatises on fugue. The reason of this is that this work, like all 
the others of the series, is founded, not upon any other theoretical 
works whatever, but solely upon the practice of the great masters 
themselves. Not one rule is given which is not enforced by the 
example of distinguished composers. Where theory and the 
practice of Bach, Handel, or Mozart come into collision, theory 
must give way ; and the student who writes fugues according to 
the directions given in this book may at all events comfort himself 
that if he is wrong, he is in exceedingly good company. 



THE END. 



ANALYTICAL INDEX. 



The numbers refer to the paragraphs, not the pages. 



Accompanied Fugue, defined, 435 ; ex- 
position, accompanied — examples by 
Bach, 436, 437 ; filling up thin har- 
mony — example by Cherubini, 438 ; 
free parts in accompaniment, number 
of, 448 ; free variation of the voice 
parts in the accompaniment — ex- 
amples by Cherubini, 439 ; by Haydn, 
440 ; general principles, 445-448 ; in- 
dependent counterpoints in accom- 
paniment — examples by Hummel, 441; 
by Mendelssohn, 443; by Mozart, 444; 
by Schubert, 442 ; need of clearness — 
examples referred to, 446 ; need of 
contrast in independent accompani- 
ments — exa?nples referred to, 447. 

Additional Entry of Subject or Answer 
— in Exposition, when advisable, 186 ; 
examples, 197 ; by Bach, 296 ; by 
Mozart, 282 ; — in Double fugue — 
examples by Haydn, 373, 376 ; — in 
Triple fugue — example by Mozart, 407; 
— in Fugue on a choral — example by 
Buxtehude, 417, 420. 

Additional Voice often introduced in 
the Coda — examplesby Bach, 298, 306 ; 
sometimes as a Pedal, 347 ; examples 
by Bach, 329. 

Analysis of Complete Fugues — subject 
worked in Two parts, 334-339 ; subject 
worked in Three parts, 340-342 ; sub- 
ject worked in Four parts, 343-348 ; 
examples by Bach, 294-318. 

Answer :— Alteration of last note of the 
Subject in the Answer — example by 
Mendelssohn, 65 ; change of pitch of 
an octave in Vocal Fugues sometimes 
met with in the course of the Answer — 
example by Schumann, 154 ; defined, 
9, 55 ; disregard of semitones between 
Subject and Answer — examples by 
Bach, 144 (a), (b), 145 (a) ; by Handel, 



145 (b) ; by Mozart, 144 (c) ; by 
Winter, 143 (c) ; dissonant intervals 
in the Subject usually retained in the 
Answer ; Seventh ; Augmented and 
Diminished fourth ; Diminished fifth ; 
Diminished seventh — examples referred 
to, 139 ; an important exception, 140. 
Examples : by Albrechtsberger— an 
Octave answered by a Seventh, 140 
(b) ; an Augmented fourth answered 
by a Major third, 142 (b) ; a Major 
third answered by an Augmented 
fourth, 143 ; by Bach— an Augmented 
fourth answered by a Major third, 142 
(a) ; by Kirnberger — a Seventh an- 
swered by an Octave 140 (a); a 
Seventh answered by a Sixth, 141 ; 
by Mozart — an Augmented fourth 
answered by a Major third, 142 (c) ; 
entry of — examples, 59-65 ; in sub- 
dominant, when possible, 80, 156 (1.) ; 
examples {see Answers, VI. d, e ; vn. 
e, f) ', in the minor key [see Answer, 
VI. b) ; in the minor key, when the 
Subject ends on the third of the Tonic, 
the Answer may end on either the 
Major or Minor third of the Dom- 
inant, 69 ; examples by Bach, 68 ; by 
Handel, 103 [a) ; by Mozart, 69 (a), 
103 (b) ; key relation of Subject and 
Answer, 9, 56, 66 ; lengthening or 
shortening the first or last note of the 
Answer is always allowed, 57 ; ex- 
amples by Bach, 57 [a), 89 (b) ; by 
Haydn, 93 (d) ; Modulations in 
Subject, how answered (see Answer, 
iv.); Real answer (see Answer, vi.) ; 
Real and Tonal answers sometimes 
met with in the same fugue (see 
Answer, VII., d) ; Tonal answer 
(see Answer, VII.). 
/. ANSWERS BY AUGMENT A- 



248 



Ana l ytica l Index. 



TION AND DIMINUTION. Key 
of such Answers, 153 ; examples re- 
ferred to, 153. 

// ANSWERS BY INVERSION. 
Key of such Answers, 152 ; example 
by Bach, 152. 

///. ANSWERS TO CHROMATIC 
SUBJECTS. Usually Real answers 
unless there be a modulation expressed 
or implied, 149, 151 ; examples by 
Bach, 149 (a), (b) ; by Handel, 151 (a)", 
by Kirnberger, 151 (b) ; by Mozart, 
149 ('). ISO {c). 

IV. ANSWERS TO SUBJECTS 
WHICH MODULATE. THE MODU- 
LATION : — Double significance of each 
degree of the scale, 122, 123 ; ex- 
pressed and implied, 118; examples 
by Bach, 119, 120; by Handel, \\<^{d); 
by Mozart, 129 (b) ; point of, 117, 
156 (iv.) ; rule for, 116, 156 (in.) ; to 
be regarded as taking place at the 
earliest possible point, 121, 156 (iv.) ; 
the reason for this, 126. 1. Treatment 
of Third of the scale — rule, 127, 128, 

134, 158 ; examples by Bach, 128, 129, 
130 (b) ; by Handel, 130 (a) ; by 
Mozart, 129 (b). 11. Treatment of 
the Seventh, of the scale — rule, 127, 
128, 134, 158 ; examples by Bach, 131, 
132 (a), (b), 133 (a) ; by Macfarren, 
x 33 (fi) '< by Naumann, 132 (c). (a) 
Subject in Tonic modulating to Domi- 
nant, Answer in Dominant modulat- 
ing to Tonic — examples by Bach, 125, 
126, 128, 129 [a), 130 (b) to 133 ; by 
Handel, 125 ; by Macfarren, 133 (b) ; 
by Mozart, 124 ; by Naumann, 132 ((). 
(b) Subject in Domina?it modulaiing 
to Tonic, Answer in Tonic modulat- 
ing tc Dominant — examples by Bach, 
answering one note by two, 136 ; by 
Buxtehude, 134 ; by Handel, answer- 
ing one note by two, 137 ; by Kirn- 
berger, answering one note by two, 

135. (c) Subject in Tonic modulating 
to Domin nt and returning to Tonic, 
Answer in Dominant modulating to 
Tonic and returning to Dominant — 
examples by Bach, 138 (a) ; by Prout, 
138 (b). (d) Subject in Dominant 
answered in Superlonic — examples by 
Bach, 148 ; by Handel, 146 ; by Leo, 
147. (e) Subject in Subdominant \ 



modulating to Tonic, Answer in Tonic 
modulating to Dominant—example by 
Handel, 82. (/) Subject with inter- 
mediate modulations imitated exactly 
in the Answer — examples by Bach, 
83 (b) ; by Handel, 83 (a). 

V. IRREGULAR ANSWERS. Ex- 
amples by Bach, 155 (a) ; by Beet- 
hoven, 155 (<?) ; by Handel, 155 lb) ; 
by Haydn, 155 (c) ; by Mendelssohn, 
155 (g) I by Mozart, 155 (d) ; by 
Schumann, 155 (li); by Weber, i55(/). 

VI. REAL ANSWER, defined, 9, 
57 ; when possible, 58, 101, 105, 107, 
112, 156 (li.). (a) Major Subject in 
Tonic, Answer in Dominant — ex- 
amples, by Bach — Answer entering on 
last note of the Subject, 59 ; Answer 
enters after last note of the Subject ( 
60 ; Answer enters before the end of 
the Subject, 61 ; by Handel— Answer 
ei tering one bar after the end of the 
Subject, use of Codetta, 62 ; by Haydn 
— Answer enters on last note of the 
Subject, 63; by Hummel — Answer 
enters immediately after last note 
of Subject, 64 ; by Mendelssohn — 
Answer enters on last note of Subject 
— alteration of the last note, 65. (b\ 
Minor Subjects in Tonic, Answer in 
Dominant — examples by Bach, 66 (a), 
(b) ; occasionally the harmony of the 
dominant key is not defined till 
toward the end of the Answer, 67 ; by 
Bach, 68 ; by Mozart, 69 (a) ; by 
Clementi, 69 (b) ; Answer ending on 
Major third of the dominant, 68, 69. 
(c) Subject in Dominant, Answer in 
Tonic — examples, by Bach, 70 (a) ; 
by Handel, 70 (b). (d) Major Subjects 
in Tonic, Answer in Subdo?ninant — 
Answering Tonic harmony by Domi- 
nant harmony, and vice versa, 71-74, 
8o, 100, 108 ; when an Answer in the 
subdominant is possible, 80, 156 (1.) ; 
examples, by Bach, 71 (a), (b), by Men- 
delssohn, 71 (c). (e) Minor Subjects in 
Tonic, Answer tn Subdominant — ex- 
amples, by Bach, 72-78; by Beethoven, 
79 (b); by Handel, 79 (a); by Schu- 
mann, 79 (c). (f) Subject in Subdomi- 
nant, Answer in Tonic — example, by 
Handel, 81. (g) Subjects which com- 
mence on Tonic and leap to Dominant 



Analy tic a l Ind ex. 



'49 



sometimes have Real Answers — ex- I 
amples by Bach, 91 (a) ; by Handel, 
91 (b), (c), (d) ; by Schumann, 91 {e). 
(h) Subjects which commence on Tonic, 
with notes of the Tonic chord taken 
in succession sometimes have Real 
Answers — examples, by Bach, 94; by 
J. Christian Bach, 96; by Cherubini. 
98 ; by Clemenii, 99 ; by Handel, 
95 ; by Mendelssohn, 97 {a) ; by 
Schumann, 97 (0) ; by Verdi, 99. 
(i) Subjects which commence on Dom- 
inant and leap to Tonic sometimes 
have Real Answers — examples by 
Beethoven, 106 (c), (d), (e); by Handel, 

106 (a), (6). (j) Subjects which com- 
mence on Dominant, with notes of the 
Tonic chord taken in succession some- 
times have Real Answers — examples 
by Bach, 105 (a) ; by Handel, 105 
(b), (c) ; by Hummel, 105 (/) ; by 
Martini, 105 (d) ; by Schumann, 105 
(e). (k) Subjects which commence on 
Dominant, and are followed by some 
other note than Tonic sometimes have 
Real answers — examples, by Bach, 

107 (a), (b), (c) ; by Handel, 107 (d), 
(e) ; by Mendelssohn, 107 (/). 

VII. TONAL ANSWER, defined, 
57, 84 ; its effect, 89 ; Modern rule 
for, 101, 112 ; Old rule for, 85, 86, 
88 ; not always observed by the great 
masters, 86 ; origin of, 84 ; rule for 
answering Tonic by Dominant and 
Dominant by Tonic only applies to 
the beginning of the Subject, and to 
passages where a modulation to the 
Dominant occurs, 88, 90 ; when a 
Tonal answer is necessary, 112. (a) 
Subjects which commence on Tonic 
and bap to Dominant — examples by 
Bach, a second in the Subject becom- 
ing a unison in the Answer, 88, 89 ; 
a third in the Subject becoming a 
second in the Answer, 89 (a) ; a 
second in the Subject becoming a 
third in the Answer, 89 (b). (b) Sub- 
jects which commence on Tonic with 
notes of the Tonic chord taken in suc- 
cession — examples by Bach 92 (a), (b), 
93 0)> (*) I b y Haydn, 93 (c), (d). 
(c) Subjects which commence on the 
Dominant — exa?nples by Bach, 102, 
104 ; by Handel, 103, 104 ; by 



Mendelssohn, 102 ; by Mozart 103. 

(d) Subject i?i Tonic, Answer first Real, 
second Tonal — example by Bach, 109. 

(e) Subject in Tonic, Answer in Sub- 
dominant — examples by Bach, no (a); 
by Buxtehude, no (b), (c). (f) Subject 
in Tonic, Answer first i?i Dominant, 
second in Subdominant — examples by 
Bach, in (a) ; by Schumann, in (b). 

Answering One note by Two (see Answer, 

IV. b). 
Answering Tonic harmony by Dominant 

harmony and Dominant harmony by 

Tonic, Rule, 80, 100, 108. 
Augmentation and Diminution, 

Answer by (see Answer, I.) ; Fugue 

by, 20. 
Augmentation and Inversion, stretto 

by — example by Bach, 275. 

Cadence, Full :— When employed in 
a Fugue the music must never come 
to a standstill, 321, 330. 

Cadence of a Fugue Subject, 42-45. 

Canon, use of in writing Episodes — ex- 
amples by Bach, 216 ; by Prout, 242. 

Canon and Fugue, difference between, 
4-6. 

Canonic Stretto {see Stretto). 

Canto Fermo, Fugue on (see Fugue on a 
Choral). 

Change of an octave in pitch sometimes 
found in the course of the Answer in 
vocal fugues, the reason for this, 154. 

Choral, Fugue on (see Fugue on a Choral). 

Chromatic subjects, How answered (see 
Answer, in.). 

Close Fugue :— Defined, 17, 279 ; key of 
Subject and Answer the same, 281 ; 
examples by Bach, 279 (a) ; by Han- 
del, 279 (b), 280 ; by Mendelssohn, 
279 (c). 

Close Fugue on a Choral — example by 
Bach, 423. 

Close Fugue in Double Fugue— example 
by Bach, 387. 

Coda : — Defined, 305 ; introduction of 
an additional voice in, 306 ; examples 
by Bach, 298, 306, 308, 318 ; in 
Double fugue — example by Bach re- 
ferred to, 394 ; in Triple fugue — 
example by Mozart, 406 ; in fughetta 
— examples by Bach, 353 ; by Handel, 
355 ; by Beethoven, 357. 



2 5° 



Analytical Index. 



Codetta : — Defined, 62 ; difference be- 
tween Codetta and Episode, 215; when 
advisable, 165, 177, 188-193, 200 ; 
examples, 62, 69 (b), 79 (c), 163, 173, 
188-195, 204, 215, 220, 224, 269, 343; 
ditto in Double fugue, 377, 392. 

Compass of subject, 47. 

Complete Fugues analyzed (see Analysis 
of Complete Fugues). 

Continuity, necessity of, in Fugal writing, 

3 21 - 33°- 

Counter - exposition :— Defined, 13, 
207 ; episode sometimes separates the 
Exposition and the Counter-exposi- 
tion — examples by Bach referred to, 
207 ; Exposition and Counter-exposi- 
tion, difference between — examples by 
Bach referred to, 207 ; its introduc- 
tion purely optional, 211 ; sometimes 
only partial — example by Bach referred 
to, 208 ; Stretto sometimes intro- 
duced in — example by Bach referred 
to, 209. 

Counter-exposition in Double Fugue — 
example by Bach referred to, 388. 

Counter -exposition by inversion — ex- 
ample by Bach referred to, 210. 

Countersubject : — Deferred appearance 
of — exampleby Bach, 172 ; defined, 10, 
159 ; fugue with two regular Counter- 
subjects — examples by Bach, 173, 174 ; 
fugues without regular Countersub- 
jects — examples by Bach referred to, 
176 ; individuality of Melodic charac- 
ter and contrast of Rhythm, as com- 
pared with the Subject, most important 
— examples by Bach, 161, 162 (a), (0), 
163 ; in Tonal fugues which modu- 
late, sometimes needs modification — 
examples by Bach, 169, 170; Inganno, 
defined — example by Bach, 165 ; key 
of, 164; material of — examples by 
Bach, 166, 167 ; modification of some- 
times necessary- example by Bach, 
170 ; must be written in Double coun- 
terpoint, with the Subject usually in 
the Octave, sometimes in the Tenth or 
Twelfth, 160. Must make correct 
Two-part counterpoint with the 
Answer on its first appearance, 171 ; 
Regular countersubject not indis- 
pensable — examples by Bach referred 
to, 176 ; sometimes accompanies 
only part of the Subject or Answer 



— example by Bach, 168 ; Triple 
counterpoint in fugues with Two 
Countersubjects, 172, 173. 

Derivation of the word " Fugue," 2. 

Difference between Canon and Fugue, 
4-6. 

Diminution, Answer by (see Answer, 1.) ; 
Stretto by {see Stretto). 

Diminution and Augmentation, Answer 
by (see Answer I.) ; fugue by, 20. 

Diminution and Inversion, Stretto by {see 
Stretto). 

Disregard of semitones between Subject 
and Answer (see Answer). 

Dissonant intervals in Subject, how 
answered (see Answer). 

Dominant key, Subject in, how answered 
{see Answer, VI. c). 

Dominant-pedal (see Final Section, Pedal- 
point). 

Double Counterpoint :— Its employ- 
ment in writing Countersubjects, 160 ; 
in Double fugue, 368, 385 ; in Epi- 
sode, 224, 242. 

Double Fugue :— (Fugue on two sub- 
jects)— defined, 3, 365 ; Two methods 
of writing, 366. 

/. THE FIRST METHOD, in which 
the two Subjects appear together. 
Additional entries, 373 ; Codetta, 377 ; 
development of the Subjects, 379 ; 
Episode, 379 ; Exposition — examples, 
by Bach, 370; by Cherubini, 377, 
378 ; by Handel, 371, 374 ; by Haydn, 
37 2 . 373 1 b y Hummel, 375, 377; 
form of this kind of Double fugue, 
379 ; isolated entries, 382 ; Middle 
entries, 380 ; necessity for contrast, 
Melodic and Rhythmic, in the two 
subjects, 368 ; need of clearness, 378 ; 
number of parts requisite in Double 
fugue, 369 ; Stretto, 381 ; the two 
Subjects should always finish together, 
374 ; should be written in Double 
counterpoint with each other, 368; 
should commence shortly after each 
other, 374. 

//. THE SECOND METHOD, in 
which each Subject has its own 
separate Exposition. Coda — example 
by Bach referred to, 394 ; Codetta, 
392 ; Counter-exposition — example by 
Bach, 388 ; defined, 384, 385 ; difference 



A NA L YTICA L 2ND EX. 



251 



between the two varieties, 385 ; 
Episode— example referred to by Bach, 
392 ; exposition of First subject, 387 ; 
of Second subject, 389 ; examples by 
Bach, 387-389 ; isolated entries, 392 ; 
limits of variation of this form, 395; 
modulation, small amount of, 397 ; 
Second exposition sometimes only 
partial— examples by Bach, 387; by 
Handel, 386; Ternary form applied 
to Double fugue, 396 ; the two Ex- 
positions, 386 ; the two Subjects com- 
bined -examples by Bach, 390-394. 
Double fugue on a Choral — example 
by Mendelssohn, 431 ; by Bach, 433. 

Ecclesiastical scales in connection with 
Tonal answer, 84. 

Entry of Subject in a fugue best preceded 
by a rest, or where this is not possible, 
by a leap— the reason for this, 320. 

Episode : — All the voices should not be 
employed continuously, 219 ; chief 
essentials of good Episodes, 243 ; 
defined, 12, 213 ; Double counterpoint 
in — examples by Bach, 222 ; by 
Handel, 224 ; Episode and Codetta, 
difference between — example by Bach, 
215; fugues without Episodes —ex- 
amples by Bach referred to, 235 ; how 
to obtain Unity, 217, 231 ; how 
to write, 230-234 ; exercise worked 
in Three parts, 237-239 ; in Four 
parts, 240-242 ; Imitation, use of, 217 ; 
length of, variable — examples by Bach 
referred to, 234 ; material for, Se- 
quence, 216 ; Modulation by means 
of — example by Bach, 214, 216 ; need 
of variety in each episode, 231 ; 
number of Episodes variable — ex- 
amples by Bach referred to, 233 ; 
number of parts in, 219, 221 ; one 
Episode sometimes the Inversion of 
another — example by Bach, 229 ; Se- 
quence, its importance, 230 ; Triple 
counterpoint in — examples by Bach, 
229 ; by Handel, 226. 
/. EPISODES FORMED FROM 
THE SUBJECT. Examples (a) 
by Bach : Canon, Modulation, Se- 
quential treatment, 216 ; (b) by B ch : 
Imitation, Modulation, 218 ; (c) by 
Bach : Imitation by Contrary motion, 
219. 



//. EPISODES FORMED FROM 
THE COUNTER SUBJECT. Ex- 
amples by Bach : free parts, imitation, 
sequential treatment, 220, 221. 
///. EPISODES FORMED FROM 
THE COD E TTA . Examples by Bach : 
Imitation by augmentation, modula- 
tion, sequential imitation, 222, 223. 

IV. EPISODES FORMED FROM 
SUBJECT AND COUNTERSUB- 
J ECT. Examples (a) by Handel : 
double counterpoint in the Tenth, imi- 
tation, sequential treatment, 224; (b) 
by Handel : sequential treatment, 225 ; 
(c) by Handel : treatment by Inverse 
contrary movement, triple counter- 
point, 226. 

V. EPISODES FORMED FROM 
ENTIRELY NEW MATERIAL. 
Examples by Bach, 227 ; by Beet- 
hoven, 228. 

Episode in Double Fugue (see Double 
Fugue, I. and n.); in Triple fugue 
{see Triple Fugue) ; in Fugue on a 
Choral (see Fugue on a Choral) ; in 
Fughetta {see Fughetta). 

Exposition — (First section of a Fugue). 
Additional entry of Subject or Answer 
— when advisable — example by Bach 
referred to, 186, 187 ; Alternation of 
Subject and Answer, 200 ; cases in 
which all the voices do not appear in 
the Exposition — examples by Bach re- 
ferred to, 203 ; choice of voice for the 
Answer, 179-182; Codetta when neces- 
sary — (a) before the Entry of the 
Answer — examples, 188- 191 ; (b) be- 
tween the Second and Third entries — 
examples, 192, 193; defined, 11, 178, 
293 ; ends in either Tonic or Domi- 
nant key, 202 ; Irregular Expositions 
— examples by Handel: an Octave 
fugue, 206 ; Keys of, 115 ; Last 
entry best in an outer part— the reasons 
for this, 182 ; Length of— Limits of, 
178, 293, 294 ; Order of entry of the 
different voices, 179; (a) in & Two-part 
fugue, 183; (b) in a Three-part fugue, 
184 ; (c) in a Four-part fugue, 199 ; 
relative distance of voices, 180. 
/. EXPOSITION OF A TWO- 
PART FUGi E. Either voice may 
lead — example of, Exposition ends at 
bar 9, 334, 335. 



2 5 2 



Anal ytica l Index. 



U. EXPOSITION OF A THREE- 
PART FUGUE. Exercise worked — 
additional entry — Codetta — Counter- 
subject— Free part, 194-197. 
///. EXPOSITION OF A FOUR- 
PART FUGUE— how it differs from 
one in Three parts, 201 — exercise 
worked — Codetta — Countersubject — 
two free parts, 204, 205. 
Exposition of a Double fugue {see Double 
Fugue) ; of a Triple fugue {see Triple 
Fugue) ; of a Quadruple fugue {see 
Quadruple Fugue) ; of an Accom- 
panied fugue {see Accompanied 
Fugue) ; of a Fugue on a Choral {see 
Fugue on a Choral, 1. and 11.) ; of a 
Fughetta {see Fughetta). 

Final Section of a Fugue :— Addi- 
tional voices sometimes introduced in 
the Coda, 306, 329 ; Coda, 294, 296, 
3°5< 3°6i 308, 318, 347 ; defined, 291- 
294 ; examples by Bach, 294, 296, 298, 
3°5. 3° 8 - 3 l8 : b Y Prout, 335, 339, 
34°. 343. 347; key of, 29 c, 292; 
length of, 305 ; Pedal-point, 272, 329, 
347 ; Strrtto maestrale, 318, 347. 

First section of a Fugue {see Exposition). 

Form in Fugue (simple), 291-293 ; in 
Double fugue, 379, 396 ; in Triple 
fugue, 403, 406 ; in Fugue on a 
Choral, 424 ; in Fughetta, 351, 353, 

355. 356. 

Four-part Fugue (see Simple Fugue, in.). 

Free Fugue defined, 18. 

Free parts in Simple fugue in Three 
parts, 194, 196, 340 ; in Simple fugue 
in Four parts, 204, 343. 

Fugato : — Defined, 358 ; Difference be- 
tween Fugue and Fugato, 359, 360 ; 
examples by Bach, 359 ; by Beethoven, 
391; by Haydn, 360; by Macken- 
zie, 363 ; by Mendelssohn, 362 ; by 
Mozart, 361 ; in Fugue on Choral — 
example by Bach, 423. 

Fughetta : — Coda in, 353, 355, 357 ; de- 
fined, 350; Episode in, 353. 354; Expo- 
sition of, 351, 352, 354, 356, 357 ; Form 
in > 35 x > 353. 355- 35 6 l Middle entries j 
i n > 353» 355; Stretto in, 356; examples 
by Bach, 352-354 ; by Beethoven, 357; 
by Handel, 355 ; by Mozart, 356. 

Fugue : — Accompanied {see Accompanied 
Fugue) ; Answer in {see Answer) ; by 



Augmentation, Diminution, and Infer- 
sion — defined, 20 ; Close {see Close 
Fugue) ; Coda in {see Coda) ; Codetta 
in (see Codetta) ; Counter-exposition in 
(see Counter-exposition) ; Countersub- 
ject in (see Countersubject) ; defined, 
2 ; Derivation of the word ' 'fugue," 2 ; 
Double fugue (see Double Fugue) ; 
Episode in (see Episode); Exposition 
of {see Exposition). Final Section of 
a (see Final Section of a Fugue). First 
Section of a (see Exposition). Free 
Fugue, defined, 18. Fugue and 
Canon, difference between, 4-6 ; 
general plan of, 291-.-5.05; may be 
in any number of parts, 11; Middle 
entries in (see Middle Entries) ; Middle 
section of a (see Middle Section) ; on 
a Choral (see separate paragraph 
below) ; on One Subject (see Simple 
Fugue) ; on Two Subjects (see Double 
Fugue) ; on Three Subjects (see Triple 
Fugue) ; on Four Subjects (see Quad- 
ruple Fugue ; Pedal-point in (see Final 
Section of a Fugue) ; Quadruple fugue 
(see Quadruple Fugue) ; Real fugue, 
defined, 9 ; Ricercare, defined, 19 ; 
Simple (see Simple Fugue) ; Stretto in 
(see Stretto) ; Strict fugue, defined, 
18 ; Subject in (see Subject) ; Tonal, 
defined, 9. 
Fugue on a Choral: — Two methods of 
writing, 415. 

I. THE FIRST METHOD. Ad- 
ditional entries, 420 ; Canto Fermo, 
entry of, 415, 418, 420, 423, 425, 426 ; 
Close fugue, 423 ; defined, 415, 416 ; 
entries not always at regular intervals, 
423 ; Exposition, 416, 418, 419, 421 ; 
form of, 416, 424 ; Fugato, 423 ; 
modulation, 424 ; plan mostly fol- 
lowed, 416; Stretto, 419; Subjects 
taken from the Choral itself, 416 ; 
examples by Bach analyzed, 422, 423 ; 
by Buxtehude analyzed, 417-421 ; 
Modern examples, by Macfarren, re- 
ferred to, 426. 

//. THE SECOND METHOD. 
Canto fermo, 427, 429, 433 ; defined, 
416, 427; Double fugue, 431, 433; 
Episodes, 430 ; first line of a choral 
taken as a Fugue subject, 433 ; Fugato, 
427 ; interval of Reply seldom strict, 
427 ; modulations, 429 ; Subject quite 



anal vi ica l Index. 



253 



independent ot the Choral, 427 ; ex- 
amples by Bach analyzed, 427, 428 ; 
by Bach — Double fugue, 433 ; by 
Mendelssohn — E oub!e fugue, 431. 

General Plan of a Fugue, 334; ex- 
ercises worked- (a) in Two parts 335, 
and analyzed, 336-339 ; (b) in Three 
parts, 340, and analyzed, 341, 342 ; 
(c) in Four parts, 343, and analyzed, 
344-347- 

How to determine the limits of the Ex- 
position 293; of the Subject, 53. 

How to obtain Unity in iugal writing, 
217, 231. 

Imitation, use of, in writing Episodes, 
217. 

Implied modulation in a Subject (see 
Subject). 

Incidental modulation in Sibject (see 
Subject, Vlll.); how answered (see 
Answer, IV. (/). 

Incomplete entries of Subject or Answer 
in S retto, 252. 

Incomplete Exposition, 203. 

Incomplete Counter-exposition, 208. 

Inganno : — Defined — example by Bach, 
,65. 

Inversion : — A^werby (see Answer, 11.); 
Counter-exposition by (see Counter- 
exposition) ; Stretto by (see Stretto 

(A (*). [h)- 

Irregular — Answers (see Answer, v.) ; Ex- 
position (see Exposition). 

Isolated entries (see Middle Section of a 
Fugue). 

Key : — Of Answer (see Answer) ; of 
Countersubject (see Countersubject) ; 
of Subject (see Subject) ; of Subject 
and Answer in Close fugue (see Close 
Fugue). 

Keys : — Of Exposition (see Exposition) ; 
of Middle section — order of modula- 
tion (see Middle Section) ; of final 
section (see Final Section). 

Leading Note :— Subject commencing 
on (see Subject, How to Commence) ; 
treatment of, in Answers to Subjects 
which modulate (see Answers, IV.). 

Length of Episodes (see Episode) ; of 



Exposition (see Expositi< n) ; of Final 
section (see Final Section) ; of Middle 
section (see Middle Section) ; of Sub- 
ject (see Subject). 
Limits of exposition, how to find (see 
Exposition); of Subject, how to deter- 
mine (see Subject). 

Material of Countersubject (see Counter- 
subject) ; of Episode (see Episode). 

Mediant, Subject commencing on (see 
Subject, How to Commence). 

Melody and Rhythm in Subject, im- 
portance of (see Subject). 

Middle Entries : — All voices need not 
take part in, 327 ; general Rule for 
treatment of, 325, 326 ; how to dis- 
tinguish Subject and Answer in, 297 ; 
in Stretto, 313, 314, 316-318 ; number 
of Middle entries variable, 328. 

Middle entries in Double fugue (see 
Double Fugue, I.) ; in Fughetta (see 
Fughetta). 

Middle Section of a Fugue : — 
Cadences in, 321; defined, 14; 
entries of the Subject best preceded 
by a rest, or, if this is not possible, by 
a leap — the reason for this, 320 ; free- 
dom of treatment in, 290 ; how to 
distinguish Subject and Answer in, 
2^7 ; individuality in the voices to be 
carefully preserved, 332 ; isolated en- 
tries, 301 ; length of, variable, 294, 
295 ; Middle entries in (see Middle 
Entries) ; occasional rests in some 
of the voices desirable, 319; order 
of modulation in, 322-324; Stretto 
in (see Stretto) ; where it com- 
mences, 293 ; where it ends, 294.. 
Exercise worked and analyzed — (a) in 
Two parts, 335-339 ; (b) in Three 
parts, 340-342 ; (c) in Four parts, 
343-347- Examples — (a) by Bach 
analyzed, 298-307 ; (b) by Bach an- 
alyzed, 308-318 ; (c) by Bach referred 
to and analyzed, 294, 295 ; (d) by 
Bach referred to and analyzed, 296. 
Example of how not to write by 
Mozart, 330. 
Modulation : — In Double fugue (see 
Double Fugue, 11.) ; in a Fugue sub- 
ject (see Subject, III., iv., v., VI., 
viii.); in a Fugue subject, how an- 
swered (see Answer, iv. ) ; in Fugue 



254 



Analytical Index. 



on a Choral (see Fugue on a Choral, 
I. and II.); in Middle section (see 
Middle Section, Order of Modulation) ; 
in Triple fugue (see Triple Fugue) ; 
use of Episode to effect (see Episode). 

Need of clearly defined Tonality in the 
Subject, 26. 

Need of contrast in Counter subject, 
161 ; in the Subjects of a Double 
fugue, 368 ; of a Triple fugue, 398. 

Need of variety in Episodes, 231. 

Occasional rests to some of the voices 

desirable in a Fugue, 219-222, 319, 331. 
Octave Fugue defined — example by 

Handel, 206. 
Order of entry of the different voices in 

the exposition (see Exposition). 
Order of modulation in Middle section 

of a Fugue (see Middle Section). 

Pedal-point (see Final Section of a Fugue). 
Plagal scale in connection with Tonal 

Answer, 84. 
Point of modulation in a Fugue subject, 

how to determine and how to Answer 

(see Answer, IV.). 

Quadruple Counterpoint (see Quad- 
ruple Fugue). 

Quadruple Fugue : — Four Subjects to 
be written in Quadruple counter- 
point, 411. Examples by Cherubini, 
413, 414; by Haydn, 411; by Handel, 
discussed 412. 

Real answer (see Answer, VI.). 

Real and Tonal answer sometimes met 
with in the same Fugue, 109. 

Real fugue (see Fugue). 

Rests before re-entry of Subject, 197. 

Rests in some of the voices desirable 
occasionally, 219-222, 319, 331. 

Rhythm and Melody in the Subject, im- 
portance of, 52. 

Ricercare fugue defined (see Fugue). 

Semitones, disregard of, between Subject 

and Answer (see Answer). 
Sequence, its employment in Episode 

(see Episode). 
Short Subjects — Examples by Bach, 46 

(a), (b) ; by Mozart, 46 (c). 



Simple Fugue :— General plan of, 334. 
/. FUGUE IN TWO PARTS. 
Exercise worked of a complete Fugue, 
335 ; analysis of, 336-339. 
//. FUGUE IN THREE PARTS. 
Exercise worked of a complete Fugue, 
340 ; analysis of, 341, 342 ; examples 
of complete Fugues (a) by Bach, 
analysis of, 297-307 ; (b) by Bach, 
referred to, analysis of, 295, 296. 
III. FUGUE IN FOUR PARTS. 
Exercise worked of a complete Fugue, 
343 ; analysis of, 344-347 ; examples 
of complete Fugues (a) by Bach, 
analysis of, 308-318 ; by Bach, re- 
ferred to, analysis of, 294, 295. 

Stretto: — Canonic, 270; Close fugue, 
279, 280 ; closest Stretti should come 
last, 251 ; defined, 16, 244 ; imitation, 
may be at any interval, 248, and in any 
number of parts, 251 ; in the exposition, 
Subject and Answer in the same key, 
Close fugue, 279 ; in the Counter 
exposition, 269, 270 ; incomplete 
entries, 252 ; interest should be cumu- 
lative, 251, 328 ; last entering voice 
should have the Subject complete, 
252, 271 ; last notes of the Subject 
sometimes slightly altered, 285 ; later 
entries should be either in more parts, 
or at shorter distances, or both, 251 ; 
met with mostly in the Middle and 
Final sections of a Fugue, 269 ; 
necessity for analysis, 288 ; not in- 
dispensable, 246 ; one voice may dis- 
continue the Subject as soon as 
another voice enters with it, 252, 271 ; 
regularity desirable in the entries of 
the Stretti, 271 ; slight modifications 
of the Subject allowable in Close 
Stretti, 277 ; Stretto ma^-strale defined, 
277, 278 ; Subject and Countersub- 
ject sometimes treated in Stretto, 272; 
Subject or Answer of a Tonal fugue 
may be used, 253 ; Subjects should 
be specially designed for Stretto — ex- 
ample of Subject not so designed, 
247-250 ; the Old rule, 245 ; varieties 
of, 253. 

Exercise worked : — 
/. IN TWO PARTS. Subject 
specially designed for Stretto, 254 ; 
(a) Treatment of the Subject — (i.) At 
three bars' distance, 255; (ii.) af 



Analy tic a l Ind ex. 



255 



two and a half bars', 256; (iii.) at 
two bars', 257; (iv.) at one bar's, 
258; (v.) at half a bar's, 259. (b) 
Treatment of the Answer— (i.) At 
three bars' distance, 260; (ii.) at 
two bars' distance, 261 ; (iii.) at 
one bar's distance, 262; (iv.) at half 
a bar's distance, 263. 
//. IN THREE PARTS. InteivalS 
of entry irregular — (i.) At one bar's 
distance, 264 ; (ii. ) at two and one 
bars' distance, 265. 

111. IN FOUR PARTS. Intervals 
of Entry irregular — (i.) at one bar's 
distance, 266; (ii.) at half a bar's 
distance, 267. 
Examples : — 

(a) by Bach, Stretto in the Ex- 
position, close fugue, 279 ; (b) by 
Bach, Stretto in the Counter-expo- 
sition, 269 ; (c) by Bach, Canonic 
Stretto in the Counter-exposition, 270; 
(d) by Bach, Stretto in the Middle 
section, 271 ; (e) by Bach, Stretto in 
the Final Section above a pedal, 272 ; 
(/) by Bach, Stretto by Inversion, 
274 ; (g) by Bach, Stretto by Aug- 
mentation and Inversion, 275 ; (h) by 
Bach, Stretto by Diminution and In- 
version, 276 ; (i) by Bach, Stretto 
Maestrale, 277, 278 ; (/') by Brahms, 
Modern freedom, 287 ; (k) by Handel, 
Stretto made from altered Subject, 
2 73 1 (J) by Handel, Stretto in the 
Exposition, Close fugue, 279 (b), 280; 
(m) by Mendelssohn, Stretto in the 
Exposition, Close fugue, 279 (c) ; (n) 
by Mendelssohn, alteration of the last 
notes of the Subject, 285 ; (o) by 
Mozart, Stretto in the Exposition, 

282 (a) ; entries per Arsin et Thesin, 

283 (a) ; Closest stretti, 283 (b) ; (p) 
by Mozart, 284 ; (q) by Spohr, 286. 

Stretto in Double fugue (see Double 
Fugue, I.) ; in Triple fugue (see Triple 
Fugue) ; in Fughetta (see Fughetta) ; 
in Fugue on a Choral (see Fugue on a 
Choral). 

Strict fugue (see Fugue). 

Subdominant, Answer in (see Answer, VI. 
(d), (<?), vii. (e) ; Answer in when 
advisable, 80, 156 (1.) Subject com- 
mencing on (see Subject, How to 



Commence); Subject in, How answered 
(see Answer, VI., /). 
Subject :— Adaptabi ity for Stretto, 51 ; 
Cadence in, 42-45 ; compass of, 
shouM rarely exceed an octave — Why, 

47 ; Clear tonality in, importance of, 
26, 54 ; defined, 8, 25 ; distinct cha- 
racter in, need of, 52 ; Essentials of a 
good Subject, 54 ; final notes should 
be capable of being harmonized as a 
cadence, 42 ; how to commence — on 
Tonic, 48 ; on Supertonic — examples 
by Bach, 48 (a) ; by Mendelssohn, 

48 (b) ; on Mediant — examples by 
Beethoven, 48 (c) ; by Cherubini, 

48 (d) ; on Subdominant — examples 
by Handel, 49 (a) ; by Schumann, 

49 (b) ; on Dominant, 48 ; on Sub- 
mediant — examples by Bach, 49 (c) ; 
by Hummel, 49 (d) ; on Leading 
note — example by Hummel, 49 (e) ; 
How to end — in Common time — in 
Triple time, 42-45 ; implied harmony, 
27; implied modulation, 118; inci 
dental modulation in (see Subject, 
viii.); key of— Tonic, 28-3256; Domi 
nant, 33 ; Subdominant, 39 ; Length of, 
Short subjects — examples by Bach, 
46 (a), (b) ; by Mozart, 46 (c) ; Long 
Subjects — examples by Bach, 46 (d) ; 
by Beethoven, 46 (/). by Mozart, 
46 (e) ; limits of, how to determine, 
53 ; Modulation in (see Subject, III., 
iv., v., VI., viii.) ; how answered 
(see Answer, iv.) ; Melody and Rhythm 
in, 52; must be Contrapuntal in cha- 
racter, 50 ; need not remain in the 
same key throughout, 26 ; Rhythm 
should be well marked, 52. 

/. SUBJECTS IN TONIC KEY 
THROUGHOUT. (a) In Majoi 
keys — examples by Bach, 28 (c), 29, 

30 (a) ; by Beethoven 30 (b) ; by 
Handel, 28 (a), (b) ; by Mozart. 29. 
(b) In Minor keys — examples by Bach, 

31 (a), (b), (c); by Handel, 32 (a); 
Mendelssohn, 32 (c) ; Mozart, 32 (b). 

II. SUBJECTS IN DOMINANT 
KEY THROUGHOUT. Examples by 
Bach, 33 (a), (b) ; by Handel, 33 (c). 

III. SUBJECTS WHICH MODU- 
LATE FROM TONIC '10 DOMI- 
NANT, (a) Major keys— examples 
by Bach, 34 (a), (b) ; bv TTindel, 



256 



Analytical Index. 



34 {c) ; by Schumann, 34 id). (b) 
Minor keys — examples by Bach, 35 (a) ; 
by Rubinstein, 35 (<:) ; by Schumann, 

35 (*). 

IV. SUBJECTS IN DOMINANT 
MOD ULA TING TO TONIC. Ex- 
amples by Bach, 36 (a) ; bv Handel, 

36 (*). 

V. SUBJECTS WHICH MODU- 
LATE TO DOMINANT AND 
RETURN TO TONIC. A somewhat 
rare modulation, 37 ; example by 
Bach, 37. 

VI. MOD ULA TION BET WEEN 
TONIC A ND S UBDOMINA N T. 
Examples by Bach, 38 (b), (c) ; by 
Handel, 38 (a) ; by Mendelssohn, 
38 (d). 

VII. SUBJECT IN S UBDOMI- 
NA NT. Quite exceptional, 39 ; ex- 
ample by Handel, 39. 

VIII. SUBJECTS WITH INCI- 
DENTAL MODULATIONS. (A) In 
Major keys — Examplesby Bach, 40 (a); 
by Handel, 40 (b) ; by Mendelssohn, 
40 (c). (b) In Minor keys — Examples 
by Bach, 41 ib) ; by Handel, 41 {a), 
(c), 103 (a) ; by Hummel 105 (/). 

Subjects, how answered (see Answer). 

Submediant, Subject commencing on 
(see Subject, How to Commence). 

Supertonic, Answer in key of {see An- 
swer, IV., d). 

Supertonic, Subject commencing on (see 
Subject, How to Commence) 

Ternary Form : — Applied to Simple 
fugue, 291, 292 ; Double fugue, 379, 
396 ; Triple fugue, 406. 



Three-part fugue (see Simple Fugue, II.). 

Tonal answers isee Answer, vn.). 

Tonal fugue denned, 9. 

Tonality must be clearly denned in the 
Subject, 26. 

Tonic pedal isee Final Section — Pedal- 
point). 

Treatment of the Third and Seve?ith of 
the scale in Subjects which modulate 
(see Answer, IV. ). 

Triple Counterpoint :— In Episodes 
isee Episode) ; in Simple fugue (with 
Two counter-subjects), 172, 173 ; in 
Triple fugue isee Triple Fugue). 

Triple Fugue :— Contrast between the 
three Subjects, necessity for, 398 ; de- 
fined, 3, 398 ; Episode in, 401, 407 ; 
freedom of, 410 ; Stretto in, 400, 401, 
408 ; Ternary form in, 406 ; the three 
Subjects to be written in Triple 
counterpoint, 398. 

(a) THE SUBJECTS AN- 
NOUNCED TOGETHER. Examples 
by Albrechtsberger, 405 ; by Mozart 
analyzed, 406-409. 

(B) EACH SUBJECT HAVING 
A SEPARATE EXPOSITION. 
Example by Bach analyzed, 400-403. 

Two-part fugue (see Simple Fugue). 

Unity in fugal composition, how to ob- 
tain, 217, 231. 

Variety, need of, in Episodes, 231. 
Varieties of Fugue, 17-20 ; of Stretto, 253. 
Vocal fugues, change of an octave in 

pitch in the course of the Answer in, 

154- 



MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Albrechtsberger, 140 (b), 142 (&), 143, 
4o5- 

Bach, J. S., Art of Fugue, 77, 104 (a), 
152, 400-402. Cantatas: — " Aus der 
Tiefe rufe ich," 370 ; " Bringet dem 
Herrn Ehre seines Namens," 94(^)5 
" Der Himmel lacht," 48 (a), 71 (a) ; 
" Ein' feste Burg," 119 {c) ; " Ein 
ungefarbt Gemiithe," 33 (a); " Es ist 
dir gesagt," 94 (a) ; " Es ist euch gut 
dass ich hingche," no (a); " Es 
wartet Alles auf Dich," in (a); 
"Gott ist mein Konig," 119 (b), 129 
(a); " Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste 
Zeit," 107(17); "Herr, DeineAugen," 
73; "Ich hatte viel Bekiimmerniss,'' 
34 (a), 92 (b), 119 (a) ; " Ihr werdet 
weinen und heulen," 142 (a) ; " Lobe 
den Herren, den machtigen Konig," 
128 ; " Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele," 
387-390; " Sehet, welch' eine Liebe," 
37, 138 (a); "Singet dem Herrn," 
34 (b), 130 (b) ; "Von Himmel hoch 
da komm' ich her," 422 ; " Wer Dank 
opfert," 40 (a) ; "Wer sich selbst er- 
hohet," 437. Christmas Oratorio, 
105 (a) ; Concerto for Two Claviers, 
93 (P) ". Four Duets (No. 2), 92 (a) ; 
Fughetta in D minor, 352 ; Fughetta 
in E minor, 350 ; Fughetta on ' ' Al- 
lein Gott in der Hoh' sei Ehr'," 
144 (a) ; Fugue for Clavier in A, 107 
(6), 136 ; Fugue for Clavier in A 
minor, 155 (a) ; Fugue for Clavier in 
E flat, 149 (b) ; Fugue (unfinished) in 
C minor, 107 (c) ; Fugue in E minor, 
38 (c) ; Mass in B minor, 36 (a), 38 
(b) , 144 (b) ; Matthaus Passion, 35 
(a), 125 (b), 359; Motett, "Der 
Geist hilft uns're Schwachheit auf," 
279 (a) ; Motett, " Furchte dich 
nicht," 427; Motett, "Singet dem 
Herrn," 436; Organ Fugue in A, 
109 ; Organ Fugue in A minor, 83 



(b) ; Organ Fugue in B flat, 145 (a) ; 
Organ Fugue in C, 71 (b), 120, 132 
(a) ', Organ Fugue in C minor, 31 (c), 
392, 393 ; Organ Fugue in D minor, 
76 (a), 227 (a), (b) ; Organ Fugue in 
E minor, 227 ; Organ Fugue in E 
flat (Si. Anns), 49 (c), 102 (c), 433; 
Organ Fugue in G minor, 41 (b), 91. 
(a) ; Partita in B minor, 31 (b), 72 ; 
Partita in D, 33 (b) ; Sonata in D, 
94 (c) ; Suite for Orchestra in D, 78 ; 
Suite for Orchestra in F (Ouverture), 
70 (a) ; Toccata in C minor, 46 (d) ; 
Toccata in D minor, 76 (b) ; 1 occata 
in F sharp minor, 149 (a) ; Toccata 
and Fugue in C for Organ, 93 (a), 
126. Wohltemperirtes Clavier : — 
Fugue 1, 28 (c), 277; Fugue 2, 31 (a), 
131, 162 (a), 215 ; Fugue 4, 66 (a), 
172 (a), (b), 272 ; Fugue 5, 46 (a) ; 
Fugue 6, 274 (a), (b), (c) ; Fugue 7, 
170, 191, 222, 223 ; Fugue 8, 89 (b), 
192, 275 ; Fugue 9, 61 ; Fugue 10, 
148 ; Fugue 12, 167 ; Fugue 13, 102 
(a) ; Fugue 14, 220, 221 ; Fugue 15, 
59 ; Fugue 16, 218, 219 ; Fugue 17, 
89 (a), 193 (b) ; Fugue 18, 132 (6), 
166, 332 ; Fugue 19, 133 (a) ; Fugue 
20, 66 (b) ; Fugue 21, 30, 173 ; Fugue 
22, 46 (b), 193 (a) ; Fugue 24, 169, 
271; Fugue 29, 60 (a), 278, 308; 
Fugue 31, 29, 88, 270 ; Fugue 33, 
57 (a), 165, 269, 276 ; Fugue 34, 168, 
298 ; Fugue 36, 190 ; Fugue 37, 44, 
162 (b) ; Fugue 40, 102 (b) ; Fugue 
42, 67 ; Fugue 43, 60 (b) ; Fugue 44, 
139, 163 ; Fugue 46, 68 ; Fugue 47, 
174. 

Bach, J. Christian, 96. 

Bkethoven, * Der glorreiche Augen- 
blick,' 106 (e) ; Mass in C, 30 (b), 
155 (e), 357; Mass in D, 48 (c), 106 
(c), 'Mount of Olives,' 106 (d)\ 
Quartett, Op. 59, No. 3, 46 (/) ; 
Quartett, Op. 131, 79 {b) ; Sonata, 



'5* 



Index to Musical Illustrations. 



Op. 2, No. I, 50 (b) ; Sonata, Op. 

106, 228 (a), (b)\ Symphony No. 1, 

361 ; Symphony in D, 50 (a). 
Brahms, ' Deutsches Requiem,' 287. 
Buxtehude, no (t>), 134 ; Fugue on a 

Choral, 417 ; Organ Fugue in G 

minor, no (c). 

Cherubini, Credo a 8 voci, 413; First 

Mass, 438, 439 ; Second Mass, 377 ; 

Fourth Mass, 48 (d) ; Treatise on 

Fugue, 98. 
Clementi, Gradus ad Parnassum, No. 

25. 69 (b) ; No. 45, 99 (a). 

Handel, "Alexander's Feast," 38 {a), 
82 ; Anthem, " Have mercy upon me, 
O God," 107 (e) ; Anthem, "I will 
magnify Thee," 137 (a); Anthem, "In 
the Lord put I my trust," 41 (c) ; An- 
them, " Let God arise," 105 (c) ; 
Anthem, "O come, let us sing," 
106 (b) ; ' Belshazzar,' 137 (b) ; ' Choice 
of Hercules,' 155 (b) ; Concerto 
Grosso in C, 130 ; Dettingen Anthem, 
49 (a), 146, 386 ; First Grand Con- 
certo, 95 (d) ; Fourth Oboe Concerto, 
105 (b) ; ' Hercules,' 34 (c), 100 (b) ; 
' Israel in Egypt,' 95 (b), 125 (a), 
279 (P) < ' Jephthah,' 39, 81, 151 (a) ; 
Jubilate, 280 ; ' Judas Maccabaeus, ' 
28 (b), 374; ' Messiah,' 28 (a), 41 (a), 
103 (a), 104 (b), 273 ; Muzio Scevola, 
32 (a), 145 (b) ; Ninth Organ Con- 
certo, 95 (c) ; Ricardo Primo, 62 ; 
' Rinaldo,' 36 (b) ; 'Samson,' 33 (c), 
70 (b) ; ' Saul,' 91 (c) ; 107 (d), ng(d); 
'Semele,' 40 (b), 83 (a) ; Six Fugues, 
No. 2, 224-226 ; Six Fugues for Harp- 
sichord, No. i, 371 ; ' Solomon,' 
79 (a), 206 ; ' Susanna,' 91 (b) ; ' Theo- 
dora,' 95 (a); 'Tolomeo,' 95 (<?) ; 
Utrecht ' Te Deum,' 106 (a), 355; 
Violin Sonata in A, 91 (d). 

Haydn, 'Creation,' 155 (c) ; 360; First 
Mass, 372, 440 ; Fourth Mass, 63 ; 
Fifth Mass, 93 (d) ; ' Seasons,' 93 (c). 

Hummel, First Mass, 49 (e), 64, 441 ; 



Second Mass, 49 (d), 375 ; Third 
Mass," 105 (/). 

KlRNBERGER, 135, 140 (a), 141, 151 (b) 

Leo, " Dixit Dominus," 147. 

Macfarren, « The Resurrection,' 133 (b). 

Mackenzie, 'The Rose of Sharon,' 363. 

Martini, 105 (d). 

Mendelssohn, « Christus,' 97 (a) ; 
' Elijah,' 32 (c), 102 (d), 362 ; Fugue 
in E minor, 155 (g) ; Ninety-fifth 
Psalm, 107 (/), 285 ; Organ Sonata 
(Second), 65 ; Organ Sonata (Third), 
38 (d); 'St. Paul,' 40 (c), 279 (c) ; 
"Surrexit pastor," Op. 39, No. 3, 
48 (6), 71. ■(*). 

Mozart, " Ein Musikalischer Spass,' 
330 ; Fugue for Piano in G minor, 
103 (b) ; Litany in B flat, 46 (e) ; 
144 (c) ; Mass in C, No. 4, 142 (c) ; 
Mass in C, No. 12, 29, 282, 283 (a), 
(b), 406 ; in C minor, 149 (c) ; in F, 
129 (b), 356, 444 ; Quartett in D minor, 
No. 13, 150, 284 ; in G, No. 14, 46 (c), 
57 (b), 124 ; Requiem, 32 (b), 69 (a) ; 
Te Deum, 155 (d). 

Naumann, First Mass, 132 [c). 

Prout, Second Organ Concerto, 138 (b). 

Rubinstein, ' Paradise Lost,' 35 (c). 

Schubert, Mass in F, 442. 

Schumann, 'Faust,' 97 (b) ; Fughetta, 
Op. 126, No. 2, 79 (c) ; Fugue, Op. 72, 
No. I, 35 (b) ; Fugue, Op. 72, No. 2, 
155 (h) ; Fugue, Op. 72, No. 3, 49 (6) ; 
Mass in C minor, 34 (d), 91 (<?) ; 
Neujahrslied, in (b) ; ' Paradise and 
the Peri,' 105 (e) ; Requiem, 154. 

Spohr, ' Fall of Babylon,' 286. 

Verdi, Requiem, 99 (b). 

Weber, Mass in E fiat, 155 (/). 
Winter, P., 'Stabat Mater,' 14 



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